Publications

FXPAL publishes in top scientific conferences and journals.

2002
Publication Details
  • International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 56, pp. 75-107
  • Feb 1, 2002

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We describe our experiences with the design, implementation, deployment, and evaluation of a Portholes tool which provides group and collaboration awareness through the Web. The research objective was to explore how such a system would improve communication and facilitate a shared understanding among distributed development groups. During the deployment of our Portholes system, we conducted a naturalistic study by soliciting user feedback and evolving the system in response. Many of the initial reactions of potential users indicated that our system projected the wrong image so that we designed a new version that provided explicit cues about being in public and who is looking back to suggest a social rather than information interface. We implemented the new design as a Java applet and evaluated design choices with a preference study. Our experiences with different Portholes versions and user reactions to them provide insights for designing awareness tools beyond Portholes systems. Our approach is for the studies to guide and to provide feedback for the design and technical development of our system.
2001

Signature Random Fields for Accommodating Illumination Variability

Publication Details
  • In Workshop on Identifying Objects Across Variations in Lighting: Psychophysics & Computation, Proc. IEEE Intl. Conf. on Computer Vision & Pattern Recognition 2001.
  • Dec 12, 2001

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In this paper, we document an extension to traditional pattern-theoretic object templates to jointly accommodate variations in object pose and in the radiant appearance of the object surface. We first review classical object templates accommodating pose variation. We then develop an efficient subspace representation for the object radiance indexed on the surface of the three dimensional object template. We integrate the low-dimensional representation for the object radiance, or signature, into the pattern-theoretic template, and present the results of orientation estimation experiments. The experiments demonstrate both estimation performance fluctuations under varying illumination conditions and performance degradations associated with unknown scene illumination. We also present a Bayesian approach for estimation accommodating illumination variability.

Work/place: mobile technologies and arenas of activity

Publication Details
  • ACM SIGGROUP Bulletin, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pp3-9, Publisher ACM Press, New York, NY, USA
  • Dec 8, 2001

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The increasing number of wireless, portable devices has led inevitably to lyrical rhetorics of business cost-cutting and increased efficiency as workers can be productive while on the and offices become streamlined areas of efficient activity. In this short paper, we raise a number if issues that have been appearing in common discourses the (most) modern office, and the impact of wireless technologies thereupon. We also present an overview of a workshop held at ECSCW in Bonn in September of 2001 on this topic, giving an overview of the comments and discussions that took place at the workshop.

Framing Mobile Collaborations and Mobile Technologies.

Publication Details
  • In B. Brown, N. Green, R. Harper (Eds.) Wireless World: Social and Interactional Aspects of Wireless Technology, London, UK: Springer-Verlag.
  • Dec 1, 2001

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Recent years have seen a marked increase in the production and promotion of portable, wireless communication devices: mobile phones with internet access, wireless PDAs such as the Palm VII and smart pagers such as RIM's 850 and 950. Some claim the presence of such devices in the hands, bags and pockets of so many people heralds a new world of work in which people can be reached and information accessed "anywhere, anytime". Whether or not access to information in itself can promote new working practices, individuals whose lives revolve around movement between work sites have been singled out as an obvious market for such portable wireless communication devices. Using these devices such “mobile workers” can be in touch with colleagues, collaborators and clients "24/7", and still sustain non-work social relationships due, apparently, to their constant connectedness whilst mobile. In this chapter we have two goals. The first is to address the design of mobile technologies. This second is to illustrate our design approach, wherein we consider local practices of technology use, but also the broader cultural context in which technologies are designed, produced, bought, sold, used and redesigned. Our ultimate design aim is to build upon existing practices, but also to consider possibilities for the development of innovative technologies that enable new, complementary, practices.
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of the International Conference on Image Processing, Thessaloniki, Greece. October 7-10, 2001.
  • Oct 7, 2001

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In this paper, we present a novel framework for analyzing video using self-similarity. Video scenes are located by analyzing inter-frame similarity matrices. The approach is flexible to the choice of similarity measure and is robust and data-independent because the data is used to model itself. We present the approach and its application to scene boundary detection. This is shown to dramatically outperform a conventional scene-boundary detector that uses a histogram-based measure of frame difference.
Publication Details
  • Proceedings of ACM Multimedia 2001, Ottawa, Canada, Oct. 5, 2001.
  • Oct 5, 2001

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Given rapid improvements in storage devices, network infrastructure and streaming-media technologies, a large number of corporations and universities are recording lectures and making them available online for anytime, anywhere access. However, producing high-quality lecture videos is still labor intensive and expensive. Fortunately, recent technology advances are making it feasible to build automated camera management systems to capture lectures. In this paper we report our design of such a system, including system configuration, audio-visual tracking techniques, software architecture, and user study. Motivated by different roles in a professional video production team, we have developed a multi-cinematographer single-director camera management system. The system performs lecturer tracking, audience tracking, and video editing all fully automatically, and offers quality close to that of human-operated systems.
Publication Details
  • Proc. ACM Multimedia 2001, Ottawa,CA, Oct. 2001.
  • Sep 30, 2001

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We describe a system called FlyAbout which uses spatially indexed panoramic video for virtual reality applications. Panoramic video is captured by moving a 360° camera along continuous paths. Users can interactively replay the video with the ability to view any interesting object or choose a particular direction. Spatially indexed video gives the ability to travel along paths or roads with a map-like interface. At junctions, or intersection points, users can chose which path to follow as well as which direction to look, allowing interaction not available with conventional video. Combining the spatial index with a spatial database of maps or objects allows users to navigate to specific locations or interactively inspect particular objects.
Publication Details
  • Proc. International Conference on Computer Music (ICMC), Habana, Cuba, September 2001.
  • Sep 12, 2001

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This paper presents a novel approach to visualizing the time structure of musical waveforms. The acoustic similarity between any two instants of an audio recording is displayed in a static 2D representation, which makes structural and rhythmic characteristics visible. Unlike practically all prior work, this method characterizes self-similarity rather than specific audio attributes such as pitch or spectral features. Examples are presented for classical and popular music.
Publication Details
  • IEEE Computer, 34(9), pp. 61-67
  • Sep 1, 2001

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To meet the diverse needs of business, education, and personal video users, the authors developed three visual interfaces that help identify potentially useful or relevant video segments. In such interfaces, keyframes-still images automatically extracted from video footage-can distinguish videos, summarize them, and provide access points. Well-chosen keyframes enhance a listing's visual appeal and help users select videos. Keyframe selection can vary depending on the application's requirements: A visual summary of a video-captured meeting may require only a few highlight keyframes, a video editing system might need a keyframe for every clip, while a browsing interface requires an even distribution of keyframes over the video's full length. The authors conducted user studies for each of their three interfaces, gathering input for subsequent interface improvements. The studies revealed that finding a similarity measure for collecting video clips into groups that more closely match human perception poses a challenge. Another challenge is to further improve the video-segmentation algorithm used for selecting keyframes. A new version will provide users with more information and control without sacrificing the interface's ease of use.

Recording the Region of Interest from FlyCam Panoramic Video

Publication Details
  • Proc. International Conference on Image Processing, Thessaloniki, Greece, September 2001.
  • Sep 1, 2001

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A novel method for region of interest tracking and recording video is presented. The proposed method is based on the FlyCam system, which produces high resolution and wide-angle video sequences by stitching the video frames from multiple stationary cameras. The method integrates tracking and recording processes, and targets applications such as classroom lectures and video conferencing. First, the region of interest (which typically covers the speaker) is tracked using a Kalman filter. Then, the Kalman filter estimation results are used for virtual camera control and to record the video. The system has no physical camera motion and the virtual camera parameters are readily available for video indexing. The proposed system has been implemented for real time recording of lectures and presentations.

The Beat Spectrum: A New Approach to Rhythm Analysis

Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimedia and Expo 2001 (ICME), Tokyo, Japan. August 22-25, 2001.
  • Aug 25, 2001

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We introduce the beat spectrum, a new method of automatically characterizing the rhythm and tempo of music and audio. The beat spectrum is a measure of acoustic self-similarity as a function of time lag. Highly structured or repetitive music will have strong beat spectrum peaks at the repetition times. This reveals both tempo and the relative strength of particular beats, and therefore can distinguish between different kinds of rhythms at the same tempo. We also introduce the beat spectrogram which graphically illustrates rhythm variation over time. Unlike previous approaches to tempo analysis, the beat spectrum does not depend on particular attributes such as energy or frequency, and thus will work for any music or audio in any genre. We present tempo estimation results for a variety of musical genres, which are accurate to within 1%. This approach has a variety of applications, including music retrieval by similarity and automatically generating music videos.
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of Conference on Modeling and Design of Wireless Networks (ITCOM2001), Denver, Colorado, August 23-24 August 2001.
  • Aug 23, 2001

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This paper reports our design, and implementation of an automatic lecture-room camera-management system. The motivation for building this system is to facilitate online lecture access and reduce the expense of producing high quality lecture videos. The goal of this project is a camera-management system that can perform as a human video-production team. To achieve this goal, our system collects audio/video signals available in the lecture room and uses the multimodal information to direct our video cameras to interesting events. Compared to previous work--which has tended to be technology centric--we started with interviews with professional video producers and used their knowledge and expertise to create video production rules. We then targeted technology components that allowed us to implement a substantial portion of these rules, including the design of a virtual video director, a speaker cinematographer, and an audience cinematographer. The complete system is installed in parallel with a human-operated video production system in a middle-sized corporate lecture room, and used for broadcasting lectures through the web. The systemí*s performance was compared to that of a human operator via a user study. Results suggest that our system's quality is close to that of a human-controlled system.

The impact of text browsing on text retrieval performance

Publication Details
  • Information Processing and Management 37 (3) pp. 507-520
  • Aug 21, 2001

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The results from a series of three experiments that used Text Retrieval Conference (TREC) data and TREC search topics are compared. These experiments each involved three novel user interfaces (one per experiment). User interfaces that made it easier for users to view text were found to improve recall in all three experiments. A distinction was found between a cluster of subjects (a majority of whom were search experts) who tended to read fewer documents more carefully (readers, or exclusives) and subjects who skimmed through more documents without reading them as carefully (skimmers, or inclusives). Skimmers were found to have significantly better recall overall. A major outcome from our experiments at TREC and with the TREC data, is that hypertext interfaces to information retrieval (IR) tasks tend to increase recall. Our interpretation of this pattern of results across the three experiments is that increased interaction with the text (more pages viewed) generally improves recall. Findings from one of the experiments indicated that viewing a greater diversity of text on a single screen (i.e., not just more text per se, but more articles available at once) may also improve recall. In an experiment where a traditional (type-in) query interface was contrasted with a condition where queries were marked up on the text, the improvement in recall due to viewing more text was more pronounced with search novices. Our results demonstrate that markup and hypertext interfaces to text retrieval systems can benefit recall and can also benefit novices. The challenge now will be to find modified versions of hypertext interfaces that can improve precision, as well as recall and that can work with users who prefer to use different types of search strategy or have different types of training and experience.

m-Links: An Infrastructure for Very Small Internet Devices

Publication Details
  • The 7th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MOBICOM 2001), Rome, Italy, July 16-21 2001, ACM Press, 2001, pp. 122-131.
  • Jul 16, 2001

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In this paper we describe the Mobile Link (m-Links) infrastructure for utilizing existing World Wide Web content and services on wireless phones and other very small Internet terminals. Very small devices, typically with 3-20 lines of text, provide portability and other functionality while sacrificing usability as Internet terminals. In order to provide access on such limited hardware we propose a small device web navigation model that is more appropriate than the desktop computers web browsing model. We introduce a middleware proxy, the Navigation Engine, to facilitate the navigation model by concisely displaying the Webs link (i.e., URL) structure. Because not all Web information is appropriately "linked," the Navigation Engine incorporates data-detectors to extract bits of useful information such as phone numbers and addresses. In order to maximize program-data composibility, multiple network-based services (similar to browser plug-ins) are keyed to a links attributes such as its MIME type. We have built this system with an emphasis on user extensibility and we describe the design and implementation as well as a basic set of middleware services that we have found to be particularly important.
Publication Details
  • Proceedings of the INNS-IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, vol. 3, pp. 2176 - 2181, Washington DC., July 14-19, 2001.
  • Jul 14, 2001

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The goal of this project is to teach a computer-robot system to understand human speech through natural human-computer interaction. To achieve this goal, we develop an interactive and incremental learning algorithm based on entropy-guided learning vector quantisation (LVQ) and memory association. Supported by this algorithm, the robot has the potential to learn unlimited sounds progressively. Experimental results of a multilingual short-speech learning task are given after the presentation of the learning system. Further investigation of this learning system will include human-computer interactions that involve more modalities, and applications that use the proposed idea to train home appliances.
Publication Details
  • The Eighth IFIP TC.13 Conference On Human-Computer Interaction (INTERACT 2001). Tokyo, Japan, July 9-13, 2001.
  • Jul 9, 2001

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The two most commonly used techniques for evaluating the fit between application design and use - namely, usability testing and beta testing with user feedback - suffer from a number of limitations that restrict evaluation scale (in the case of usability tests) and data quality (in the case of beta tests). They also fail to provide developers with an adequate basis for: (1) assessing the impact of suspected problems on users at large, and (2) deciding where to focus development and evaluation resources to maximize the benefit for users at large. This paper describes an agent-based approach for collecting usage data and user feedback over the Internet that addresses these limitations to provide developers with a complementary source of usage- and usability-related information. Contributions include: a theory to motivate and guide data collection, an architecture capable of supporting very large scale data collection, and real-word experience suggesting the proposed approach is complementary to existing practice.
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of Human-Computer Interaction (INTERACT '01), IOS Press, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 464-471
  • Jul 9, 2001

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Hitchcock is a system to simplify the process of editing video. Its key features are the use of automatic analysis to find the best quality video clips, an algorithm to cluster those clips into meaningful piles, and an intuitive user interface for combining the desired clips into a final video. We conducted a user study to determine how the automatic clip creation and pile navigation support users in the editing process. The study showed that users liked the ease-of-use afforded by automation, but occasionally had problems navigating and overriding the automated editing decisions. These findings demonstrate the need for a proper balance between automation and user control. Thus, we built a new version of Hitchcock that retains the automatic editing features, but provides additional controls for navigation and for allowing users to modify the system decisions.

Designing e-Books for Legal Research.

Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of JCDL 2001 (Roanoke, VA, June 23-27). ACM Press. pp. 41-48.
  • Jun 23, 2001

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In this paper we report the findings from a field study of legal research in a first-tier law school and on the resulting redesign of XLibris, a next-generation e-book. We first characterize a work setting in which we expected an e-book to be a useful interface for reading and otherwise using a mix of physical and digital library materials, and explore what kinds of reading-related functionality would bring value to this setting. We do this by describing important aspects of legal research in a heterogeneous information environment, including mobility, reading, annotation, link following and writing practices, and their general implications for design. We then discuss how our work with a user community and an evolving e-book prototype allowed us to examine tandem issues of usability and utility, and to redesign an existing e-book user interface to suit the needs of law students. The study caused us to move away from the notion of a stand-alone reading device and toward the concept of a document laptop, a platform that would provide wireless access to information resources, as well as support a fuller spectrum of reading-related activities.
Publication Details
  • Proceedings of ACM CHI2001, vol. 3, pp. 442 - 449, Seattle, Washington, USA, March 31 - April 5, 2001.
  • Apr 5, 2001

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Given rapid improvements in network infrastructure and streaming-media technologies, a large number of corporations and universities are recording lectures and making them available online for anytime, anywhere access. However, producing high-quality lecture videos is still labor intensive and expensive. Fortunately, recent technology advances are making it feasible to build automated camera management systems to capture lectures. In this paper we report on our design, implementation and study of such a system. Compared to previous work-which has tended to be technology centric-we started with interviews with professional video producers and used their knowledge and expertise to create video production rules. We then targeted technology components that allowed us to implement a substantial portion of these rules, including the design of a virtual video director. The system's performance was compared to that of a human operator via a user study. Results suggest that our system's quality in close to that of a human-controlled system. In fact most remote audience members could not tell if the video was produced by a computer or a person.

Quiet Calls: Talking Silently on Mobile Phones

Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 174-181, ACM Press, March 31-April 5, 2001, Seattle, WA.
  • Mar 30, 2001
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of the Thirty-fourth Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island, Hawaii. January 7-12, 2001.
  • Feb 7, 2001

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This paper describes a new system for panoramic two-way video communication. Digitally combining images from an array of inexpensive video cameras results in a wide-field panoramic camera, from inexpensive off-the-shelf hardware. This system can aid distance learning in several ways, by both presenting a better view of the instructor and teaching materials to the students, and by enabling better audience feedback to the instructor. Because the camera is fixed with respect to the background, simple motion analysis can be used to track objects and people of interest. Electronically selecting a region of this results in a rapidly steerable "virtual camera." We present system details and a prototype distance-learning scenario using multiple panoramic cameras.
Publication Details
  • WebNet 2001 World Conference on the WWW and Internet, Orlando, FL
  • Jan 17, 2001

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As more information is made available online, users collect information in personal information spaces like bookmarks and emails. While most users feel that organizing these collections is crucial to improve access, studies have shown that this activity is time consuming and highly cognitive. Automatic classification has been used but by relying on the full text of the documents, they do not generate personalized classifications. Our approach is to give users the ability to annotate their documents as they first access them. This annotation tool is unobtrusive and welcome by most users who generally miss this facility when dealing with digital documents. Our experiments show that these annotations can be used to generate personalized classifications of annotated Web pages.

Description and Narrative in Hypervideo

Publication Details
  • Proceedings of the Thirty-Fourth Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences
  • Jan 3, 2001

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While hypertext was originally conceived for the management of scientific and technical information, it has been embraced with great enthusiasm by several members of the literary community for the promises it offers towards new approaches to narrative. Experiments with hypertext-based interactive narrative were originally based solely on verbal text but have more recently extended to include digital video artifacts. The most accomplished of these experiments, HyperCafe, provided new insights into the nature of narrative and how it may be presented; but it also offered an opportunity to reconsider other text types. This paper is an investigation of the application of an approach similar to HyperCafe to a descriptive text. We discuss how the approach serves the needs of description and illustrate the discussion with a concrete example. We then conclude by considering the extent to which our experiences with description may be applied to our continuing interest in narrative.
2000
Publication Details
  • ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 32 No. 4, December 2000.
  • Dec 1, 2000

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Modern window-based user interface systems generate user interface events as natural products of their normal operation. Because such events can be automatically captured and because they indicate user behavior with respect to an application's user interface, they have long been regarded as a potentially fruitful source of information regarding application usage and usability. However, because user interface events are typically voluminos and rich in detail, automated support is generally required to extract information at a level of abstraction that is useful to investigators interested in analyzing application usage or evaluating usability. This survey examines computer-aided techniques used by HCI practitioners and researchers to extract usability-related information from user interface events. A framework is presented to help HCI practitioners and researchers categorize and compare the approaches that have been, or might fruitfully be, applied to this problem. Because many of the techniques in the research literature have not been evaluated in practice, this survey provides a conceptual evaluation to help identify some of the relative merits and drawbacks of the various classes of approaches. Ideas for future research in this area are also presented. This survey addresses the following questions: How might user interface events be used in evaluating usability? How are user interface events related to other forms of usability data? What are the key challenges faced by investigators wishing to exploit this data? What approaches have been brought to bear on this problem and how do they compare to one another? What are some of the important open research questions in this area?
Publication Details
  • Multimedia Modeling: Modeling Multimedia Information and Systems, Nagano, Japan
  • Nov 12, 2000

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While hypermedia is usually presented as a way to offer content in a nonlinear manner, hypermedia structure tends to reinforce the assumption that reading is basically a linear process. Link structures provide a means by which the reader may choose different paths to traverse; but each of these paths is fundamentally linear, revealed through either a block of text or a well-defined chain of links. While there are experiences that get beyond such linear constraints, such as driving a car, it is very hard to capture this kind of non-linearity, characterized by multiple sources of stimuli competing for attention, in a hypermedia document. This paper presents a multi-channel document infrastructure that provides a means by which all such sources of attention are presented on a single "page" (i.e., a display with which the reader interacts) and move between background and foreground in response to the activities of the reader. The infrastructure thus controls the presentation of content with respect to four dimensions: visual, audio, interaction support, and rhythm.

A Semi-Automatic Approach to Home Video Editing.

Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of UIST '00, ACM Press, pp. 81-89, 2000.
  • Nov 4, 2000

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Hitchcock is a system that allows users to easily create custom videos from raw video shot with a standard video camera. In contrast to other video editing systems, Hitchcock uses automatic analysis to determine the suitability of portions of the raw video. Unsuitable video typically has fast or erratic camera motion. Hitchcock first analyzes video to identify the type and amount of camera motion: fast pan, slow zoom, etc. Based on this analysis, a numerical "unsuitability" score is computed for each frame of the video. Combined with standard editing rules, this score is used to identify clips for inclusion in the final video and to select their start and end points. To create a custom video, the user drags keyframes corresponding to the desired clips into a storyboard. Users can lengthen or shorten the clip without specifying the start and end frames explicitly. Clip lengths are balanced automatically using a spring-based algorithm.
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Music Information Retrieval, in press.
  • Oct 23, 2000

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We introduce an audio retrieval-by-example system for orchestral music. Unlike many other approaches, this system is based on analysis of the audio waveform and does not rely on symbolic or MIDI representations. ARTHUR retrieves audio on the basis of long-term structure, specifically the variation of soft and louder passages. The long-term structure is determined from envelope of audio energy versus time in one or more frequency bands. Similarity between energy profiles is calculated using dynamic programming. Given an example audio document, other documents in a collection can be ranked by similarity of their energy profiles. Experiments are presented for a modest corpus that demonstrate excellent results in retrieving different performances of the same orchestral work, given an example performance or short excerpt as a query.

An Introduction to Quantum Computing for Non-Physicists.

Publication Details
  • ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 32(3), pp. 300 - 335
  • Sep 1, 2000

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Richard Feynman's observation that quantum mechanical effects could not be simulated efficiently on a computer led to speculation that computation in general could be done more efficiently if it used quantum effects. This speculation appeared justified when Peter Shor described a polynomial time quantum algorithm for factoring integers. In quantum systems, the computational space increases exponentially with the size of the system which enables exponential parallelism. This parallelism could lead to exponentially faster quantum algorithms than possible classically. The catch is that accessing the results, which requires measurement, proves tricky and requires new non-traditional programming techniques. The aim of this paper is to guide computer scientists and other non-physicists through the conceptual and notational barriers that separate quantum computing from conventional computing. We introduce basic principles of quantum mechanics to explain where the power of quantum computers comes from and why it is difficult to harness. We describe quantum cryptography, teleportation, and dense coding. Various approaches to harnessing the power of quantum parallelism are explained, including Shor's algorithm, Grover's algorithm, and Hogg's algorithms. We conclude with a discussion of quantum error correction.
Publication Details
  • In Multimedia Tools and Applications, 11(3), pp. 347-358, 2000.
  • Aug 1, 2000

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In accessing large collections of digitized videos, it is often difficult to find both the appropriate video file and the portion of the video that is of interest. This paper describes a novel technique for determining keyframes that are different from each other and provide a good representation of the whole video. We use keyframes to distinguish videos from each other, to summarize videos, and to provide access points into them. The technique can determine any number of keyframes by clustering the frames in a video and by selecting a representative frame from each cluster. Temporal constraints are used to filter out some clusters and to determine the representative frame for a cluster. Desirable visual features can be emphasized in the set of keyframes. An application for browsing a collection of videos makes use of the keyframes to support skimming and to provide visual summaries.

Expanding a Tangible User Interface

Publication Details
  • In proceedings of DIS'2000, ACM Press, August 2000.
  • Aug 1, 2000
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, vol. III, pp. 1329-1332, 2000.
  • Jul 30, 2000

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We describe a genetic segmentation algorithm for video. This algorithm operates on segments of a string representation. It is similar to both classical genetic algorithms that operate on bits of a string and genetic grouping algorithms that operate on subsets of a set. For evaluating segmentations, we define similarity adjacency functions, which are extremely expensive to optimize with traditional methods. The evolutionary nature of genetic algorithms offers a further advantage by enabling incremental segmentation. Applications include video summarization and indexing for browsing, plus adapting to user access patterns.
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, pp. 666-673, 2000.
  • Jul 8, 2000

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We describe a genetic segmentation algorithm for image data streams and video. This algorithm operates on segments of a string representation. It is similar to both classical genetic algorithms that operate on bits of a string and genetic grouping algorithms that operate on subsets of a set. It employs a segment fair crossover operation. For evaluating segmentations, we define similarity adjacency functions, which are extremely expensive to optimize with traditional methods. The evolutionary nature of genetic algorithms offers a further advantage by enabling incremental segmentation. Applications include browsing and summarizing video and collections of visually rich documents, plus a way of adapting to user access patterns.
Publication Details
  • In Japan Hardcopy 2000, The Annual Conference of the Imaging Society of Japan. 6/12 6/14 2000.
  • Jun 12, 2000
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of Hypertext '00, ACM Press, pp. 244-245, 2000.
  • May 30, 2000

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We describe a way to make a hypermedia meeting record from multimedia meeting documents by automatically generating links through image matching. In particular, we look at video recordings and scanned paper handouts of presentation slides with ink annotations. The algorithm that we employ is the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). Interactions with multipath links and paper interfaces are discussed.

Hypertext Interaction Revisited

Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of Hypertext '00, ACM Press, pp. 171-179, 2000
  • May 30, 2000

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Much of hypertext narrative relies on links to shape a reader's interaction with the text. But links may be too limited to express ambiguity, imprecision, and entropy, or to admit new modes of participation short of full collaboration. We use an e-book form to explore the implications of freeform annotation-based interaction with hypertext narrative. Readers' marks on the text can be used to guide navigation, create a persistent record of a reading, or to recombine textual elements as a means of creating a new narrative. In this paper, we describe how such an experimental capability was created on top of XLibris, a next generation e-book, using Forward Anywhere as the hypernarrative. We work through a scenario of interaction, and discuss the issues the work raises
Publication Details
  • In RIAO'2000 Conference Proceedings, Content-Based Multimedia Information Access, C.I.D., pp. 637-648, 2000.
  • Apr 12, 2000

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We present and interactive system that allows a user to locate regions of video that are similar to a video query. Thus segments of video can be found by simply providing an example of the video of interest. The user selects a video segment for the query from either a static frame-based interface or a video player. A statistical model of the query is calculated on-the-fly, and is used to find similar regions of video. The similarity measure is based on a Gaussian model of reduced frame image transform coefficients. Similarity in a single video is displayed in the Metadata Media Player. The player can be used to navigate through the video by jumping between regions of similarity. Similarity can be rapidly calculated for multiple video files as well. These results are displayed in MBase, a Web-based video browser that allows similarity in multiple video files to be visualized simultaneously.

Anchored Conversations. Chatting in the Context of a Document.

Publication Details
  • In CHI 2000 Conference Proceedings, ACM Press, pp. 454-461, 2000.
  • Mar 31, 2000

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This paper describes an application-independent tool called Anchored Conversations that brings together text-based conversations and documents. The design of Anchored Conversations is based on our observations of the use of documents and text chats in collaborative settings. We observed that chat spaces support work conversations, but they do not allow the close integration of conversations with work documents that can be seen when people are working together face-to-face. Anchored Conversations directly addresses this problem by allowing text chats to be anchored into documents. Anchored Conversations also facilitates document sharing; accepting an invitation to an anchored conversation results in the document being automatically uploaded. In addition, Anchored Conversations provides support for review, catch-up and asynchronous communications through a database. In this paper we describe motivating fieldwork, the design of Anchored Conversations, a scenario of use, and some preliminary results from a user study.
Publication Details
  • In CHI 2000 Conference Proceedings, ACM Press, pp. 185-192, 2000.
  • Mar 31, 2000

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This paper presents a method for generating compact pictorial summarizations of video. We developed a novel approach for selecting still images from a video suitable for summarizing the video and for providing entry points into it. Images are laid out in a compact, visually pleasing display reminiscent of a comic book or Japanese manga. Users can explore the video by interacting with the presented summary. Links from each keyframe start video playback and/or present additional detail. Captions can be added to presentation frames to include commentary or descriptions such as the minutes of a recorded meeting. We conducted a study to compare variants of our summarization technique. The study participants judged the manga summary to be significantly better than the other two conditions with respect to their suitability for summaries and navigation, and their visual appeal.

Beyond Bits: The Future of Quantum Information Processing.

Publication Details
  • IEEE Computer, pp. 38-45, January 2000.
  • Feb 1, 2000

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Recently, physicists and computer scientists have realized that not only do our ideas about computing rest on only partly accurate principles, but they miss out on a whole class of computation. Quantum physics offers powerful methods of encoding and manipulating information that are not possible within a classical framework. The potential applications of these quantum information processing methods include provably secure key distribution for cryptography, rapid integer factoring, and quantum simulation.
1999
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of GROUP '99 (Phoenix, AZ), ACM Press, 1999.
  • Nov 14, 1999

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The development of tools to support synchronous communications between non-collocated colleagues has received considerable attention in recent years. Much of the work has focused on increasing a sense of co-presence between interlocutors by supporting aspects of face-to-face conversations that go beyond mere words (e.g. gaze, postural shifts). In this regard, a design goal for many environments is the provision of as much media-richness as possible to support non-collocated communication. In this paper we present results from our most recent interviews studying the use of a text-based virtual environment to support work collaborations. We describe how such an environment, though lacking almost all the visual and auditory cues known to be important in face-to-face conversation, has played an important role in day-to-day communication. We offer a set of characteristics we feel are important to the success of this text-only tool and discuss issues emerging from its long-term use.
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of ACM Multimedia '99, Orlando, Florida, November 1999.
  • Oct 30, 1999

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NoteLook is a client-server system designed and built to support multimedia note taking in meetings with digital video and ink. It is integrated into a conference room equipped with computer controllable video cameras, video conference camera, and a large display rear video projector. The NoteLook client application runs on wireless pen-based notebook computers. Video channels containing images of the room activity and presentation material are transmitted by the NoteLook servers to the clients, and the images can be interactively and automatically incorporated into the note pages. Users can select channels, snap in large background images and sequences of thumbnails, and write freeform ink notes. A smart video source management component enables the capture of high quality images of the presentation material from a variety of sources. For accessing and browsing the notes and recorded video, NoteLook generates Web pages with links from the images and ink strokes correlated to the video.
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings ACM Multimedia, (Orlando, FL) ACM Press, pp. 383-392, 1999.
  • Oct 30, 1999

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This paper presents methods for automatically creating pictorial video summaries that resemble comic books. The relative importance of video segments is computed from their length and novelty. Image and audio analysis is used to automatically detect and emphasize meaningful events. Based on this importance measure, we choose relevant keyframes. Selected keyframes are sized by importance, and then efficiently packed into a pictorial summary. We present a quantitative measure of how well a summary captures the salient events in a video, and show how it can be used to improve our summaries. The result is a compact and visually pleasing summary that captures semantically important events, and is suitable for printing or Web access. Such a summary can be further enhanced by including text captions derived from OCR or other methods. We describe how the automatically generated summaries are used to simplify access to a large collection of videos.
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of ACM Multimedia '99, pp. 77-80, Orlando, Florida, November 1999
  • Oct 30, 1999

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This paper presents a novel approach to visualizing the time structure of music and audio. The acoustic similarity between any two instants of an audio recording is calculated and displayed as a two-dimensional representation. Similar or repeating elements are visually distinct, allowing identification of structural and rhythmic characteristics. Visualization examples are presented for orchestral, jazz, and popular music. Applications include content-based analysis and segmentation, as well as tempo and structure extraction.

Tools for Quantum Algorithms

Publication Details
  • Int.J.Mod.Phys. C10 (1999) 1347-1362
  • Oct 29, 1999

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We present efficient implementations of a number of operations for quantum computers. These include controlled phase adjustments of the amplitudes in a superposition, permutations, approximations of transformations and generalizations of the phase adjustments to block matrix transformations. These operations generalize those used in proposed quantum search algorithms.
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Cooperative Buildings (CoBuild'99). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1670 Springer-Verlag, pp. 79-88, 1999.
  • Oct 1, 1999

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We describe a media enriched conference room designed for capturing meetings. Our goal is to do this in a flexible, seamless, and unobtrusive manner in a public conference room that is used for everyday work. Room activity is captured by computer controllable video cameras, video conference cameras, and ceiling microphones. Presentation material displayed on a large screen rear video projector is captured by a smart video source management component that automatically locates the highest fidelity image source. Wireless pen-based notebook computers are used to take notes, which provide indexes to the captured meeting. Images can be interactively and automatically incorporated into the notes. Captured meetings may be browsed on the Web with links to recorded video.
Publication Details
  • In Human-Computer Interaction INTERACT '99, IOS Press, pp. 458-465, 1999.
  • Aug 30, 1999

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In our Portholes research, we found that users needed to have a sense of being in public and to know who can see them (audience) and who is looking currently at them (lookback). Two redesigns of the Portholes display present a 3D theater view of the audience. Different sections display core team members, non-core team members and lookback. An experiment determined that people have strong preferences about audience information and how it should be displayed. Layout preferences are varied, but unfolding techniques and cluster analysis reveal that these preference perspectives fall into four groups of similar preferences.
Publication Details
  • In Human-Computer Interaction INTERACT '99, IOS Press, pp. 205-212, 1999.
  • Aug 30, 1999

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When reviewing collections of video such as recorded meetings or presentations, users are often interested only in an overview or short segments of these documents. We present techniques that use automatic feature analysis, such as slide detection and applause detection, to help locate the desired video and to navigate to regions of interest within it. We built a web-based interface that graphically presents information about the contents of each video in a collection such as its keyframes and the distribution of a particular feature over time. A media player is tightly integrated with the web interface. It supports navigation within a selected file by visualiz-ing confidence scores for the presence of features and by using them as index points. We conducted a user study to refine the usability of these tools.

From Reading to Retrieval: Freeform Ink Annotations as Queries

Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of ACM SIGIR 99, ACM Press, pp. 19-25, 1999.
  • Aug 15, 1999

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User interfaces for digital libraries tend to focus on retrieval: users retrieve documents online, but then print them out and work with them on paper. One reason for printing documents is to annotate them with freeform ink while reading. Annotation can help readers to understand documents and to make them their own. In addition, annotation can reveal readers' interests with respect to a particular document. In particular, it is possible to construct full-text queries based on annotated passages of documents. We describe an experiment that tested the effectiveness of such queries, as compared to relevance feedback query techniques. For a set of TREC topics and documents, queries derived from annotated passages produced significantly better results than queries derived from subjects' judgments of relevance.

Introducing a Digital Library Reading Appliance into a Reading Group.

Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of ACM Digital Libraries 99, ACM Press, pp. 77-84, 1999.
  • Aug 11, 1999

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How will we read digital library materials? This paper describes the reading practices of an on-going reading group, and how these practices changed when we introduced XLibris, a digital library reading appliance that uses a pen tablet computer to provide a paper-like interface. We interviewed group members about their reading practices, observed their meetings, and analyzed their annotations, both when they read a paper document and when they read using XLibris. We use these data to characterize their analytic reading, reference use, and annotation practices. We also describe the use of the Reader's Notebook, a list of clippings that XLibris computes from a reader's annotations. Implications for digital libraries stem from our findings on reading and mobility, the complexity of analytic reading, the social nature of reference following, and the unselfconscious nature of readers' annotations.

Palette: A Paper Interface for Giving Presentations.

Publication Details
  • In Proceeding of the CHI 99 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM Press, pp. 354-361, 1999.
  • May 18, 1999

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The Palette is a digital appliance designed for intuitive control of electronic slide shows. Current interfaces demand too much of our attention to permit effective computer use in situations where we can not give the technology our fullest concentration. The Palette uses index cards that are printed with slide content that is easily identified by both humans and computers. The presenter controls the presentation by directly manipulating the cards. The Palette design is based on our observation of presentations given in a real work setting. Our experiences using the system are described, including new practices (e.g., collaborative presentation, enhanced notetaking) that arise from the affordances of this new approach. This system is an example of a new interaction paradigm called tacit interaction that supports users who can spare very little attention to a computer interface.

NotePals: Lightweight Note Sharing by the Group, for the Group.

Publication Details
  • In Proceeding of the CHI 99 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM Press, pp. 338-345, 1999.
  • May 18, 1999

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NotePals is a lightweight note sharing system that gives group members easy access to each other's experiences through their personal notes. The system allows notes taken by group members in any context to be uploaded to a shared repository. Group members view these notes with browsers that allow them to retrieve all notes taken in a given context or to access notes from other related notes or documents. This is possible because NotePals records the context in which each note is created (e.g., its author, subject, and creation time). The system is "lightweight" because it fits easily into group members' regular note-taking practices, and uses informal, ink-based user interfaces that run on portable, inexpensive hardware. In this paper we describe NotePals, show how we have used it to share our notes, and present our evaluations of the system.

Face-to-Face Interfaces.

Publication Details
  • In CHI 99 Extended Abstracts, ACM Press, pp. 244-245, 1999.
  • May 18, 1999

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Recent work on the social nature of human-computer interactions [3] has prompted research on animated, anthropomorphic characters in user interfaces. Such interfaces may simplify user interactions by allowing them to use and interpret natural face-to-face communication techniques such as speech, gestures and facial expressions. We describe our initial implementation, a character that controls the A/V facilities in a state-of-the-art conference room, and outline the goals of our ongoing project.

Printertainment: Printing With Interactive Cover Sheets.

Publication Details
  • In CHI 99 Extended Abstracts, ACM Press, pp. 240-241, 1999.
  • May 18, 1999

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We explored a new type of user interface, interactive cover sheets: computer forms laid out on the banner pages of print jobs that people can mark on, scan back into a multifunction printer/scanner, and use as input to applications. Cover sheets are commonly strewn around printer rooms; with interactivity, they can let people see what others have to say, add their own comments, or play games, all while waiting for their print jobs. We designed three prototype applications and deployed them briefly in our research lab. We found that interactive cover sheets can be very appealing, that the sheets must be designed so that people can still identify these pages as cover sheets, and that the slow interaction cycle favors asynchronous applications.
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of the International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (Phoenix, AZ), vol. 6, pp. 3041-3044, 1999.
  • Mar 14, 1999

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This paper presents methods of generating compact pictorial summarizations of video. By calculating a measure of shot importance video can be summarized by de-emphasizing or discarding less important information, such as repeated or common scenes. In contrast to other approaches that present keyframes for each shot, this measure allows summarization by presenting only the most important shots. Selected keyframes can also be resized depending on their relative importance. We present an efficient packing algorithm that constructs a pictorial representation from differently-sized keyframes. This results in a compact and visually pleasing summary reminiscent of a comic book.
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of the International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (Phoenix, AZ), vol. 6, pp. 3453-3456, 1999.
  • Mar 14, 1999

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This paper describes a technique for automatically creating an index for handwritten notes captured as digital ink. No text recog-nition is performed. Rather, a dictionary of possible index terms is built by clustering groups of ink strokes corresponding roughly to words. Terms whose distribution varies significantly across note pages are selected for the index. An index page containing the index terms is created, and terms are hyper-linked back to their original location in the notes. Further, index terms occurring in a note page are highlighted to aid browsing.
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of the International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (Phoenix, AZ), vol. 6, pp. 3045-3048, 1999.
  • Mar 14, 1999

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This paper describes techniques for classifying video frames using statistical models of reduced DCT or Hadamard transform coefficients. When decimated in time and reduced using truncation or principal component analysis, transform coefficients taken across an entire frame image allow rapid modeling, segmentation, and similarity calculation. Unlike color-histogram metrics, this approach models image composition and works on grayscale images. Modeling the statistics of the transformed video frame images gives a likelihood measure that allows video to be segmented, classified, and ranked by similarity for retrieval. Experiments are presented that show an 87% correct classification rate for different classes. Applications are presented including a content-aware video browser.
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of the International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (Phoenix, AZ), vol. 6, pp. 3029-3032, 1999.
  • Mar 14, 1999

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This paper describes a method for finding segments in video-recorded meetings that correspond to presentations. These segments serve as indexes into the recorded meeting. The system automatically detects intervals of video that correspond to presentation slides. We assume that only one person speaks during an interval when slides are detected. Thus these intervals can be used as training data for a speaker spotting system. An HMM is automatically constructed and trained on the audio data from each slide interval. A Viterbi alignment then resegments the audio according to speaker. Since the same speaker may talk across multiple slide intervals, the acoustic data from these intervals is clustered to yield an estimate of the number of distinct speakers and their order. This allows the individual presentations in the video to be identified from the location of each presenter's speech. Results are presented for a corpus of six meeting videos.
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Work Activities Coordination and Collaboration, pp. 147-156, 1999.
  • Feb 22, 1999

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In many hierarchical companies, reports from several independent groups must be merged to form a single, company-wide report. This paper describes a process and system for creating and structuring such reports and for propagating contributions up the organization. The system has been in regular use, in-house, by about 30 users for over a year to create monthly status reports. Our experiences indicate that it is possible to change a monthly reporting practice so that the system is easy to use, improves the quality of the written report, fosters collaboration across projects and creates a corporate memory for the company. These results were achieved as a consequence of our design effort to directly support the hierarchical and collaborative process of creating and assembling the report within the organization. User feedback has led to many improvements in the usability and functionality of the system. Further enhancements using information retrieval and text summarization techniques are in progress.
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of the Thirty-Second Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-32), R. Sprague, Jr., editor, 1999.
  • Feb 5, 1999

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This is a critical view of the hypothesis that better access to a broader repertoire of media resources will significantly enhance our ability to communicate more effectively. It begins by laying down a foundation of some basic principles concerning the nature of knowledge creation. This foundation is framed in a manner that involves the potential relevance of two particularly creative activities, storytelling and making jazz. This foundation provides the basis for a critical examination of several media-rich presentations that were delivered at the Institute for the Future Outlook Exchange in November of 1997, since these presentations actually pertained to the practices of digital storytelling and jamming. This critique is followed by a more detailed examination of what we may learn from jazz if we wish to invoke it as a metaphor for knowledge creation. The report then concludes by discussing the implications of these observations for a new world of work experiences in which knowledge creation is a critical element.
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of the Thirty-Second Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-32), R. Sprague, Jr., editor, 1999.
  • Feb 5, 1999

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The genre of mathematics writing has several distinctive features that point to some of the weaknesses of current digital documents. Some of these weaknesses are surprising. While it might be expected that the importance of formatting and special symbols in mathematics writing would pose challenges for digital documents, the linked, chunked style of mathematics writing, with its Theorems, Lemmas, Corollaries and Remarks explicitly referring to each other, resembles standard hypertext so closely that one would expect that mathematics writing would take well to online hypertext form. It does not. This failure points to deficiencies in our understanding of the true strengths and weaknesses of digital documents. This paper describes mathematics writing, with particular emphasis on features of interest with respect to digital documents. The difficulties in producing effective digital mathematics documents are then examined and used as a basis for talking about general challenges for digital documents. The paper then discusses strengths of digital documents and some of the problems that need to be overcome before digital documents can live up to claims made for them. It also examines some of the misguided claims, such as superior support for non-linearity, that are commonly made for digital documents, explains why these claims are unwarranted, and speculates on why the claims have been made anyway. Suggestions are then given as to what the true benefits of digitization are, including performing computations on text, flexible control of time, and better support for hiding information. The paper concludes with a list of questions whose answers are critical to understanding the capabilities, and therefore the future, of digital documents.

Distributed Research Teams: Meeting Asynchronously in Virtual Space.

Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of the Thirty-second Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (Wailea, Hawaii, January 1999).
  • Feb 1, 1999

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As computer networks improve, more social and work interactions are carried out "virtually" by geographically separated group members. In this paper we discuss the design of a tool, PAVE, to support remote work interactions among colleagues in different time zones. PAVE extends a 2D graphical MOO and supports synchronous and asynchronous interactions. PAVE logs and indexes activities in the space. This capture facility enables playback and augmentation of meeting interactions by non-collocated group members. Thus, members can participate asynchronously in meetings they could not attend in real time, not just review them.

Autonomous Synthetic Computer Characters as Personal Representatives.

Publication Details
  • In Human Cognition and Social Agent Technology, Kerstin Dautenhahn (Guest-editor), Advances in Consciousness Research Series. John Benjamins Publishing Company.
  • Feb 1, 1999
Publication Details
  • In The Computer Journal, 42 (6), pp. 534-546, 1999.
  • Feb 1, 1999

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The Digestor system automatically converts web-based documents designed for desktop viewing into formats appropriate for handheld devices with small display screens, such as Palm-PCs, PDAs, and cellular phones. Digestor employs a heuristic planning algorithm and a set of structural page transformations to produce the "best" looking document for a given display size. Digestor can also be instructed, via a scripting language, to render portions of documents, thereby avoiding navigation through many screens of information. Two versions of Digestor have been deployed, one that re-authors HTML into HTML for conventional browsers, and one that converts HTML into HDML for Unwired Planet's micro-browsers. Digestor provides a crucial technology for rapidly accessing, scanning and processing information from arbitrary web-based documents from any location reachable by wired or unwired communication.
Publication Details
  • In IEEE Multimedia Systems '99, IEEE Computer Society, vol. 1, pp. 756-761, 1999.
  • Feb 1, 1999

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In accessing large collections of digitized videos, it is often difficult to find both the appropriate video file and the portion of the video that is of interest. This paper describes a novel technique for determining keyframes that are different from each other and provide a good representation of the whole video. We use keyframes to distinguish videos from each other, to summarize videos, and to provide access points into them. The technique can determine any number of keyframes by clustering the frames in a video and by selecting a representative frame from each cluster. Temporal constraints are used to filter out some clusters and to determine the representative frame for a cluster. Desirable visual features can be emphasized in the set of keyframes. An application for browsing a collection of videos makes use of the keyframes to support skimming and to provide visual summaries.

As We May Read: The Reading Appliance Revolution.

Publication Details
  • Computer, Vol. 32, No. 1, January 1999, pp. 65-73.
  • Feb 1, 1999

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Reading appliances allow people to work on electronic documents much as they would on paper. They therefore provide an alternative to the standard "browse or search and then print" model of reading online. By integrating a wide variety of document activities, such as searching, organizing, and skimming, and by allowing fluid movement among them, reading appliances eliminate disruptive transitions between paper and digital media.

Collaborating over Portable Reading Appliances.

Publication Details
  • In Personal Technologies, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1999.
  • Feb 1, 1999

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Reading appliances or e-books hold substantial promise to help us collaborate. In this paper, we use a study of a group activity - a reading group that meets to discuss articles of mutual interest - to explore four scenarios for collaborating with e-books: (1) meetings and face-to-face discussions; (2) serendipitous sharing of annotations, as when we borrow a document from a colleague or buy a used book; (3) community-wide use of anonymous annotations to guide future readers; and (4) e-books as a basis for initiating interaction between people. In so doing, we describe some methods for implementing these facilities, and introduce design guidelines.
1998
Publication Details
  • UIST '98, ACM Press, 1998, pp. 195-202.
  • Oct 31, 1998

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In this paper, we describe a technique for dynamically grouping digital ink and audio to support user interaction in freeform note-taking systems. For ink, groups of strokes might correspond to words, lines, or paragraphs of handwritten text. For audio, groups might be a complete spoken phrase or a speaker turn in a conversation. Ink and audio grouping is important for editing operations such as deleting or moving chunks of ink and audio notes. The grouping technique is based on hierarchical agglomerative clustering. This clustering algorithm yields groups of ink or audio in a range of sizes, depending on the level in the hierarchy, and thus provides structure for simple interactive selection and rapid non-linear expansion of a selection. Ink and audio grouping is also important for marking portions of notes for subsequent browsing and retrieval. Integration of the ink and audio clusters provides a flexible way to browse the notes by selecting the ink cluster and playing the corresponding audio cluster.

A Framework for Sharing Handwritten Notes.

Publication Details
  • UIST '98, ACM Press, 1998, pp. 119-120.
  • Oct 31, 1998

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NotePals is an ink-based, collaborative note taking application that runs on personal digital assistants (PDAs). Meeting participants write notes in their own handwriting on a PDA. These notes are shared with other participants by synchronizing later with a shared note repository that can be viewed using a desktop-based web browser. NotePals is distinguished by its lightweight process, interface, and hardware. This demonstration illustrates the design of two different NotePals clients and our web-based note browser.
Publication Details
  • MULTIMEDIA '98, ACM Press, 1998, pp. 375-380.
  • Sep 14, 1998

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Many techniques can extract information from an multimedia stream, such as speaker identity or shot boundaries. We present a browser that uses this information to navigate through stored media. Because automatically-derived information is not wholly reliable, it is transformed into a time-dependent "confidence score." When presented graphically, confidence scores enable users to make informed decisions about regions of interest in the media, so that non-interesting areas may be skipped. Additionally, index points may be determined automatically for easy navigation, selection, editing, and annotation and will support analysis types other than the speaker identification and shot detection used here.