Publications

FXPAL publishes in top scientific conferences and journals.

2012
Publication Details
  • Workshop on Social Mobile Video and Panoramic Video
  • Sep 20, 2012

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The ways in which we come to know and share what we know with others are deeply entwined with the technologies that enable us to capture and share information. As face-to-face communication has been supplemented with ever-richer media––textual books, illustrations and photographs, audio, film and video, and more––the possibilities for knowledge transfer have only expanded. One of the latest trends to emerge amidst the growth of Internet sharing and pervasive mobile devices is the mass creation of online instructional videos. We are interested in exploring how smart phones shape this sort of mobile, rich media documentation and sharing.
Publication Details
  • USENIX/ACM/IFIP Middleware
  • Sep 19, 2012

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Faunus addresses the challenge of specifying and managing complex collaboration sessions. Many entities from various administrative domains orchestrate such sessions. Faunus decouples the entities that specify the session from entities that activate and manage them. It restricts the operations to specific agents using capabilities. It unifies the specification and management operations through its naming system. Each Faunus name is persistent and globally unique. A collection of attributes are attached to each name. Together, they represent a collection of services that form a collaboration session. Anyone can create a name; the creator has full read and write privileges that can be delegated to others. With the proper capability, anyone can modify session attributes between an active and inactive state. Though the system is designed for Internet scale deployments, the security model for providing and revoking capabilities currently assumes an Intranet style deployment. We have incorporated Faunus into a DisplayCast system that originally used Zeroconf. We are incorporating Faunus into another project that will fully exercise the power of Faunus.
Publication Details
  • International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition (IJDAR): Volume 15, Issue 3 (2012), pp. 167-182.
  • Sep 1, 2012

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When searching or browsing documents, the genre of a document is an important consideration that complements topical characterization. We examine design considerations for automatic tagging of office document pages with genre membership. These include selecting features that characterize genre-related information in office documents, examining the utility of text-based features and image-based features, and proposing a simple ensemble method to improve genre identification performance. In the open-set identification of four office document genres, our experiments show that when combined with image-based features, text-based features do not significantly influence performance. These results provide support for a topic-independent approach to genre identification of office documents. Experiments also show that our simple ensemble method significantly improves performance relative to using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier alone. We demonstrate the utility of our approach by integrating our automatic genre tags in a faceted search and browsing application for office document collections.
Publication Details
  • IIiX 2012
  • Aug 21, 2012

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Exploratory search activities tend to span multiple sessions and involve finding, analyzing and evaluating information and collab-orating with others. Typical search systems, on the other hand, are designed to support a single searcher, precision-oriented search tasks. We describe a search interface and system design of a multi-session exploratory search system, discuss design challenges en-countered, and chronicle the evolution of our design. Our design describes novel displays for visualizing retrieval history infor-mation, and introduces ambient displays and persuasive elements to interactive information retrieval.

Design Evolution of a Mixed Reality Factory System

Publication Details
  • DIS (Designing Interactive Systems) 2012 Demos track
  • Jun 11, 2012

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We will demonstrate successive and final stages in the iterative design of a complex mixed reality system in a real-world factory setting. In collaboration with TCHO, a chocolate maker in San Francisco, we built a virtual “mirror” world of a real-world chocolate factory and its processes. Sensor data is imported into the multi-user 3D environment from hundreds of sensors and a number of cameras on the factory floor. The resulting virtual factory is used for simulation, visualization, and collaboration, using a set of interlinked, real-time layers of information. It can be a stand-alone or a web-based application, and also works on iOS and Android cell phones and tablet computers. A unique aspect of our system is that it is designed to enable the incorporation of lightweight social media-style interactions with co-workers along with factory data. Through this mixture of mobile, social, mixed and virtual technologies, we hope to create systems for enhanced collaboration in industrial settings between physically remote people and places, such as factories in China with managers in the US.

Learning how to feel again: Towards affective workplace presence and communication technologies

Publication Details
  • CHI 2012
  • May 7, 2012

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Affect influences workplace collaboration and thereby impacts a workplace's productivity. Participants in face-toface interactions have many cues to each other's affect, but work is increasingly carried out via computer-mediated channels that lack many of these cues. Current presence systems enable users to estimate the availability of other users, but not their affect states or communication preferences. This work investigates relationships between affect state and communication preferences and demonstrates the feasibility of estimating affect state and communication preferences from a presence state stream.
Publication Details
  • CHI 2012
  • May 5, 2012

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Abstract: Pico projectors have lately been investigated as mobile display and interaction devices. We propose to use them as ‘light beams’: Everyday objects sojourning in a beam are turned into dedicated projection surfaces and tangible interaction devices. While this has been explored for large projectors, the affordances of pico projectors are fundamentally different: they have a very small and strictly limited projection ray and can be carried around in a nomadic way during the day. Thus it is unclear how this could be actually leveraged for tangible interaction with physical, real world objects. We have investigated this in an exploratory field study and contribute the results. Based upon these, we present exemplary interaction techniques and early user feedback.

Designing a tool for exploratory information seeking

Publication Details
  • CHI 2012
  • May 5, 2012

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In this paper we describe our on-going design process in building a search system designed to support people's multi-session exploratory search tasks. The system, called Querium, allows people to run queries and to examine results as do conventional search engines, but it also integrates a sophisticated search history that helps people make sense of their search activity over time. Information seeking is a cognitively demanding process that can benefit from many kinds of information, if that information is presented appropriately. Our design process has been focusing on creating displays that facilitate on-going sense-making while keeping the interaction efficient, fluid, and enjoyable.

Querium: A Session-Based Collaborative Search System

Publication Details
  • European Conference on Information Retrieval 2012
  • Apr 1, 2012

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People's information-seeking can span multiple sessions, and can be collaborative in nature. Existing commercial offerings do not effectively support searchers to share, save, collaborate or revisit their information. In this demo paper we present Querium: a novel session-based collaborative search system that lets users search, share, resume and collaborate with other users. Querium provides a number of novel search features in a collaborative setting, including relevance feedback, query fusion, faceted search, and search histories
Publication Details
  • DAS 2012
  • Mar 27, 2012

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This paper describes a system for capturing images of a book with a 3D stereo camera which performs dewarping to produce output images that are flattened. A Fujifilm consumer grade 3D camera (FinePix W3) provides a highly mobile and low cost 3D capture device. Applying standard computer vision algorithms, the camera is calibrated and the captured images are stereo rectified. Due to technical limitations, the resulting point cloud has defects such as splotches and noise, which make it hard to recover the precise 3D locations of the points on the book pages. We address this problem by computing curve profiles of the depth map and using them to build a cylinder model of the pages. We then generate a mesh M1 on the source image and project this into a mesh M2 on the cylinder model in virtual space. Finally, the mesh M2 is flattened and the pixels in M1 are interpolated and rendered via M2 onto the output image. We have implemented a prototype of the system and report on some preliminary evaluation results.
Publication Details
  • ACM Transactions on Computer Human Interaction
  • Mar 1, 2012

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To combine the affordances of paper and computers, prior research has proposed numerous interactive paper systems that link specific paper document content to digital operations such as multimedia playback and proofreading. Yet, it remains unclear to what degree these systems bridge the inherent gap between paper and computers when compared to existing paper-only and computer-only interfaces. In particular, given the special properties of paper, such as limited dynamic feedback, how well does an average new user learn to master the interactive paper system? What factors affect the user performance? And how does the paper interface work in a typical use scenario? To answer these questions, we conducted two empirical experiments on a generic pen gesture based command system, called PapierCraft [Liao, et al., 2008], for paper-based interfaces. With it, people can select sections of printed document and issue commands such as copy and paste, linking and in-text search. The first experiment focused on the user performance of drawing pen gestures on paper. It proves that users can learn the command system in about 30 minutes and achieve a performance comparable to a Table PC-based interface supporting the same gestures. The second experiment examined the application of the command system in Active Reading tasks. The results show promise for seamless integration of paper and computers in Active Reading for their combined affordances. In addition, our study identifies some key design issues, such as the pen form factor and feedback of gestures. This paper contributes to better understanding on pros and cons of paper and computers, and sheds light on the design of future interfaces for document interaction.

TalkMiner: A Lecture Video Search Engine

Publication Details
  • Fuji Xerox Technical Report, No. 21, 2012, pp. 118-128
  • Feb 3, 2012

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The design and implementation of a search engine for lecture webcasts is described. A searchable text index is created allowing users to locate material within lecture videos found on a variety of websites such as YouTube and Berkeley webcasts. The searchable index is built from the text of presentation slides appearing in the video along with other associated metadata such as the title and abstract when available. The automatic identification of distinct slides within the video stream presents several challenges. For example, picture-in-picture compositing of a speaker and a presentation slide, switching cameras, and slide builds confuse basic algorithms for extracting keyframe slide images. Enhanced algorithms are described that improve slide identification. A public system was deployed to test the algorithms and the utility of the search engine at www.talkminer.com. To date, over 17,000 lecture videos have been indexed from a variety of public sources.
Publication Details
  • Fuji Xerox Technical Report No.21 2012
  • Feb 2, 2012

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Modern office work practices increasingly breach traditional boundaries of time and place, making it difficult to interact with colleagues. To address these problems, we developed myUnity, a software and sensor platform that enables rich workplace awareness and coordination. myUnity is an integrated platform that collects information from a set of independent sensors and external data aggregators to report user location, availability, tasks, and communication channels. myUnity's sensing architecture is component-based, allowing channels of awareness information to be added, updated, or removed at any time. Multiple channels of input are combined and composited into a single, high-level presence state. Early studies of a myUnity deployment have demonstrated that the platform allows quick access to core awareness information and show that it has become a useful tool for supporting communication and collaboration in the modern workplace.
Publication Details
  • Personal and Ubiquitous Computing (PUC)
  • Feb 1, 2012

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Presence systems are valuable in supporting workplace communication and collaboration. These systems are only effective if widely adopted and used. User perceptions of the utility of the information being shared and their comfort sharing such information strongly impact adoption and use. This paper describes the results of a survey of user preferences regarding comfort with and utility of workplace presence systems; the effects of sampling frequency, fidelity, and aggregation; and design implications of these results. We present new results that extend some past findings while challenging others. We contribute new design insights that inform the design of presence technologies to increase both utility and adoption.
2011
Publication Details
  • The 10th International Conference on Virtual Reality Continuum and Its Applications in Industry
  • Dec 11, 2011

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Augmented Paper (AP) is an important area of Augmented Reality (AR). Many AP systems rely on visual features for paper doc-ument identification. Although promising, these systems can hardly support large sets of documents (i.e. one million documents) because of the high memory and time cost in handling high-dimensional features. On the other hand, general large-scale image identification techniques are not well customized to AP, costing unnecessarily more resource to achieve the identification accuracy required by AP. To address this mismatching between AP and image identification techniques, we propose a novel large-scale image identification technique well geared to AP. At its core is a geometric verification scheme based on Minimum visual-word Correspondence Set (MICSs). MICS is a set of visual word (i.e. quantized visual fea-ture) correspondences, each of which contains a minimum number of correspondences that are sufficient for deriving a transformation hypothesis between a captured document image and an indexed image. Our method selects appropriate MICSs to vote in a Hough space of transformation parameters, and uses a robust dense region detection algorithm to locate the possible transformation models in the space. The models are then utilized to verify all the visual word correspondence to precisely identify the matching indexed image. By taking advantage of unique geometric constraints in AP, our method can significantly reduce the time and memory cost while achieving high accuracy. As showed in evaluation with two AP systems called FACT and EMM, over a dataset with 1M+ images, our method achieves 100% identification accuracy and 0.67% registration error for FACT; For EMM, our method outperforms the state-of-the-art image identification approach by achieving 4% improvements in detection rate and almost perfect precision, while saving 40% and 70% memory and time cost.

PaperUI

Publication Details
  • Springer LNCS
  • Dec 1, 2011

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PaperUI is a human-information interface concept that advocates using paper as displays and using mobile devices, such as camera phones or camera pens, as traditional computer-mice. When emphasizing technical efforts, some researchers like to refer the PaperUI related underlying work as interactive paper system. We prefer the term PaperUI for emphasizing the final goal, narrowing the discussion focus, and avoiding terminology confusion between interactive paper system and interactive paper computer [40]. PaperUI combines the merits of paper and the mobile devices, in that users can comfortably read and flexibly arrange document content on paper, and access digital functions related to the document via the mobile computing devices. This concept aims at novel interface technology to seamlessly bridge the gap between paper and computers for better user experience in handling documents. Compared with traditional laptops and tablet PCs, devices involved in the PaperUI concept are more light-weight, compact, energy efficient, and widely adopted. Therefore, we believe this interface vision can make computation more convenient to access for general public.
Publication Details
  • ACM Multimedia 2011
  • Nov 28, 2011

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This paper describes methods for clustering photos that include both time stamps and location coordinates. We present versions of a two part method that first detects clusters using time and location information independently. These candidate clusters partition the set of time-ordered photos. A subset of the candidate clusters is selected by an efficient dynamic programming procedure to optimize a cost function. We propose several cost functions to design clusterings that are coherent in space, time, or both. One set of cost functions minimizes inter-photo distances directly. A second set maximizes an information measure to select clusterings for consistency in both time and space across scale.
Publication Details
  • ACM Multimedia 2011
  • Nov 28, 2011

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Embedded Media Markers (EMMs) are nearly transparent icons printed on paper documents that link to associated digital media. By using the document content for retrieval, EMMs are less visually intrusive than barcodes and other glyphs while still providing an indication for the presence of links. An initial implementation demonstrated good overall performance but exposed difficulties in guaranteeing the creation of unambiguous EMMs. We developed an EMM authoring tool that supports the interactive authoring of EMMs via visualizations that show the user which areas on a page may cause recognition errors and automatic feedback that moves the authored EMM away from those areas. The authoring tool and the techniques it relies on have been applied to corpora with different visual characteristics to explore the generality of our approach.
Publication Details
  • ACM Multimedia Industrial Exhibit
  • Nov 28, 2011

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The Active Reading Application (ARA) brings the familiar experience of writing on paper to the tablet. The application augments paper-based practices with audio, the ability to review annotations, and sharing. It is designed to make it easier to review, annotate, and comment on documents by individuals and groups. ARA incorporates several patented technologies and draws on several years of research and experimentation.
Publication Details
  • ACM Multimedia Industrial Exhibits
  • Nov 28, 2011

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Modern office work practices increasingly breach traditional boundaries of time and place, making it difficult to interact with colleagues. To address these problems, we developed myUnity, a software and sensor platform that enables rich workplace awareness and coordination. myUnity is an integrated platform that collects information from a set of independent sensors and external data aggregators to report user location, availability, tasks, and communication channels. myUnity's sensing architecture is component-based, allowing channels of awareness information to be added, updated, or removed at any time. Our current system includes a variety of sensor and data input, including camera-based activity classification, wireless location trilateration, and network activity monitoring. These and other input channels are combined and composited into a single, high-level presence state. Early studies of a myUnity deployment have demonstrated that use of the platform allows quick access to core awareness information and show it has become a useful tool supporting communication and collaboration in the modern workplace.

Session-based search with Querium

Publication Details
  • HCIR 2011
  • Oct 20, 2011

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We illustrate the use of Querium, a novel search system designed to support people's collaborative and multi-session search tasks, in the context of the HCIR 2011 Search Challenge. This report demonstrates how a Querium's interface and search engine can be used to search for documents in an open-ended, exploratory task. We illustrate the use of relevance feedback, faceted search, query fusion, and the search history, as well as commenting and overview functions.

Designing for Collaboration in Information Seeking

Publication Details
  • HCIR 2011
  • Oct 19, 2011

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Information seeking is often a collaborative activity that can take can take many forms; in this paper we focus on explicit, intentional collaboration of small and explore a range of design decisions that should be considered when building Human-Computer Information Retrieval (HCIR) tools that support collaboration. In particular, we are interested in exploring the interplay between algorithmic mediation of collaboration and the mediated communication among team members. We argue that certain characteristics of the group's information need call for different design decisions.
Publication Details
  • Oct 3, 2011

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Documents created, stored, and retrieved digitally are often printed on paper to be read for the purposes of producing new documents. The cycle of electronic document "consumption" and production is often broken in the middle by printing. Our research in XLibris has examined these transitions between the digital and paper worlds. Starting with interfaces for analytic reading, we have focused on annotation, on retrieval and re-retrieval, and on shared annotation. In this talk, I will describe the interfaces and the empirical evaluations we have conducted, and will discuss the potential of this technology in digital--and in physical--libraries.

PaperUI

Publication Details
  • CBDAR 2011
  • Sep 18, 2011

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PaperUI is a human-computer interface concept that treats paper as displays that users can interact with via mobile devices such as mobile phones and projectors. It combines the merits of paper and the mobile devices. Compared with traditional laptops and tablet PCs, devices involved in this concept are more light-weight, compact, energy efficient, and widely adopted. Therefore, we believe this interface vision can make computation more convenient to access for general public. With our implemented prototype, pilot users can read documents easily and comfortably on paper, and access many digital functions related to the document via a camera phone or a mobile projector Invited Talk. http://imlab.jp/cbdar2011/#keynote

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This demo shows an interactive paper system called MixPad, which features using mice and keyboards to enhance the conventional pen-finger-gesture based interaction with paper documents. Similar to many interactive paper systems, MixPad adopts a mobile camera-projector unit to recognize paper documents, detect pen and finger gestures and provide visual feedback. Unlike these systems, MixPad allows using mice and keyboards to help users interact with fine-grained document content on paper (e.g. individual words and user-defined arbitrary regions), and to facilitate cross-media operations. For instance, to copy a document segment from paper to a laptop, one first points a finger of her non-dominant hand to the segment roughly, and then uses a mouse in her dominant hand to refine the selection and drag it to the laptop; she can also type text as a detailed comment on a paper document. This novel interaction paradigm combines the advantages of mice, keyboards, pens and fingers, and therefore enables rich digital functions on paper.
Publication Details
  • MobileHCI
  • Aug 30, 2011

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Modern office work practices increasingly breach traditional boundaries of time and place, increasing breakdowns workers encounter when coordinating interaction with colleagues. We conducted interviews with 12 workers and identified key problems introduced by these practices. To address these problems we developed myUnity, a fully functional platform enabling rich workplace awareness and coordination. myUnity is one of the first integrated platforms to span mobile and desktop environments, both in terms of access and sensing. It uses multiple sources to report user location, availability, tasks, and communication channels. A pilot field study of myUnity demonstrated the significant value of pervasive access to workplace awareness and communication facilities, as well as positive behavioral change in day-to-day communication practices for most users. We present resulting insights about the utility of awareness technology in flexible work environments.
Publication Details
  • International Journal of Arts and Technology
  • Jul 25, 2011

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Mobile media applications need to balance user and group goals, attentional constraints, and limited screen real estate. In this paper, we describe the iterative development and testing of an application that explores these tradeo ffs. We developed early prototypes of a retrospective, time-based system as well as a prospective and space-based system. Our experiences with the prototypes led us to focus on the prospective system. We argue that attentional demands dominate and mobile media applications should be lightweight and hands-free as much as possible.

Estimation Methods for Ranking Recent Information

Publication Details
  • SIGIR2011
  • Jul 24, 2011

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Temporal aspects of documents can impact relevance for certain kinds of queries. In this paper, we build on earlier work of modeling temporal information. We propose an extension to the Query Likelihood Model that incorporates query-specific information to estimate rate parameters, and we introduce a temporal factor into language model smoothing and query expansion using pseudo-relevance feedback. We evaluate these extensions using a Twitter corpus and two newspaper article collections. Results suggest that, compared to prior approaches, our models are more effective at capturing the temporal variability of relevance associated with some topics.

Secured histories for presence systems

Publication Details
  • SECOTS 2011
  • May 23, 2011

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As sensors become ever more prevalent, more and more information will be collected about each of us. A longterm research question is how best to support beneficial uses while preserving individual privacy. Presence systems are an emerging class of applications that support collaboration. These systems leverage pervasive sensors to estimate end-user location, activities, and available communication channels. Because such presence data are sensitive, to achieve wide-spread adoption, sharing models must reflect the privacy and sharing preferences of the users. To reflect users' collaborative relationships and sharing desires, we introduce CollaPSE security in which an individual has full access to her own data, a third party processes the data without learning anything about the data values, and users higher up in the hierarchy learn only statistical information about the employees under them. We describe simple schemes that efficiently realize CollaPSE security for time series data. We implemented these protocols using readily available cryptographic functions, and integrated the protocols with FXPAL's MyUnity presence system.
Publication Details
  • CHI 2011 Workshop on Mobile and Personal Projection (MP2)
  • May 8, 2011

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The field of personal mobile projection is advancing quickly and a variety of work focuses on enhancing physical objects in the real world with dynamically projected digital artifacts. Due to technological restrictions, none of them has yet investigated, what we feel is the most promising research direction: the (bi-manual) interaction with mobile projections on non-planar surfaces. To elicit the challenges of this field of research, we contribute (1) a technology-centered design space for mobile projector-based interfaces and discus related work in light thereof, (2) a discussion on lessons learnt from two of our research projects, which aim at improving both usability and user experience and (3) an outline of open research challenges within this field.
Publication Details
  • CHI 2011
  • May 7, 2011

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For document visualization, folding techniques provide a focus-plus-context approach with fairly high legibility on flat sections. To enable richer interaction, we explore the design space of multi-touch document folding. We discuss several design considerations for simple modeless gesturing and compatibility with standard Drag and Pinch gestures, and categorize gesture models along the characteristics of Symmetric/Asymmetric and Sequential/Parallel, which yields three gesture models. We built a prototype document workspace application that integrates folding and standard gestures, and a prototype for experimenting with the gesture models. A user study was conducted to compare the three models and to analyze the factors of fold direction, target symmetry, and target tolerance in user performance of folding a document to a specific shape. Our results indicate that all three factors were significant for task times, and parallelism was greater for symmetric targets.
Publication Details
  • CHI 2011 workshop on Video interaction - Making broadcasting a successful social media
  • May 7, 2011

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A variety of applications are emerging to support streaming video from mobile devices. However, many tasks can benefit from streaming specific content rather than the full video feed which may include irrelevant, private, or distracting content. We describe a system that allows users to capture and stream targeted video content captured with a mobile device. The application incorporates a variety of automatic and interactive techniques to identify and segment desired content, allowing the user to publish a more focused video stream.
Publication Details
  • ACM International Conference on Multimedia Retrieval (ICMR)
  • Apr 17, 2011

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User-generated video from mobile phones, digital cameras, and other devices is increasing, yet people rarely want to watch all the captured video. More commonly, users want a single still image for printing or a short clip from the video for creating a panorama or for sharing. Our interface aims to help users search through video for these images or clips in a more efficient fashion than fast-forwarding or "scrubbing" through a video by dragging through locations on a slider. It is based on a hierarchical structure of keyframes in the video, and combines a novel user interface design for browsing a video segment tree with new algorithms for keyframe selection, segment identification, and clustering. These algorithms take into account the need for quality keyframes and balance the desire for short navigation paths and similarity-based clusters. Our user interface presents keyframe hierarchies and displays visual cues for keeping the user oriented while browsing the video. The system adapts to the task by using a non-temporal clustering algorithm when a the user wants a single image. When the user wants a video clip, the system selects one of two temporal clustering algorithm based on a measure of the repetitiveness of the video. User feedback provided us with valuable suggestions for improvements to our system.
Publication Details
  • ACM International Conference on Multimedia Retrieval (ICMR) 2011
  • Apr 17, 2011

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Embedded Media Marker (EMM) identification system allows users to retrieve relevant dynamic media associated with a static paper document via camera phones. The user supplies a query image by capturing an EMM-signified patch of a paper document through a camera phone; the system recognizes the query and in turn retrieves and plays the corresponding media on the phone. Accurate image matching is crucial for positive user experience in this application. To address the challenges posed by large datasets and variations in camera-phone-captured query images, we introduce a novel image matching scheme based on geometrically consistent correspondences. Two matching constraints - "injection" and "approximate global geometric consistency" (AGGC), which are unique in EMM identification, are presented. A hierarchical scheme, combined with two constraining functions, is designed to detect the "injective-AGGC" correspondences between images. A spatial neighborhood search approach is further proposed to address challenging cases with large translational shift. Experimental results on a 100k+ dataset show that our solution achieves high accuracy with low memory and time complexity and outperforms the standard bag-of-words approach.

Quantum Computing: A Gentle Introduction

Publication Details
  • MIT Press
  • Mar 18, 2011

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The combination of two of the twentieth century's most influential and revolutionary scientific theories, information theory and quantum mechanics, gave rise to a radically new view of computing and information. Quantum information processing explores the implications of using quantum mechanics instead of classical mechanics to model information and its processing. Quantum computing is not about changing the physical substrate on which computation is done from classical to quantum but about changing the notion of computation itself, at the most basic level. The fundamental unit of computation is no longer the bit but the quantum bit or qubit. This comprehensive introduction to the field offers a thorough exposition of quantum computing and the underlying concepts of quantum physics, explaining all the relevant mathematics and offering numerous examples. With its careful development of concepts and thorough explanations, the book makes quantum computing accessible to students and professionals in mathematics, computer science, and engineering. A reader with no prior knowledge of quantum physics (but with sufficient knowledge of linear algebra) will be able to gain a fluent understanding by working through the book. The text covers the basic building blocks of quantum information processing, quantum bits and quantum gates, showing their relationship to the key quantum concepts of quantum measurement, quantum state transformation, and entanglement between quantum subsystems; it treats quantum algorithms, discussing notions of complexity and describing a number of simple algorithms as well as the most significant algorithms to date; and it explores entanglement and robust quantum computation, investigating such topics as quantifying entanglement, decoherence, quantum error correction, and fault tolerance.

Augmented Perception through Mirror Worlds

Publication Details
  • Augmented Human 2011
  • Mar 12, 2011

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We describe a system that mirrors a public physical space into cyberspace to provide people with augmented awareness of that space. Through views on web pages, portable devices, or on `Magic Window' displays located in the physical space, remote people may `look in' to the space, while people within the space are provided information not apparent through unaided perception. For example, by looking at a mirror display, people can learn how long others have been present, where they have been, etc. People in one part of a building can get a sense of the activities in the rest of the building, who is present in their office, look in to a talk in another room, etc. We describe a prototype for such a system developed in our research lab and office space.

DiG: A task-based approach to product search

Publication Details
  • IUI 2011
  • Feb 13, 2011

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While there are many commercial systems designed to help people browse and compare products, these interfaces are typically product centric. To help users more efficiently identify products that match their needs, we instead focus on building a task centric interface and system. With this approach, users initially answer questions about the types of situations in which they expect to use the product. The interface reveals the types of products that match their needs and exposes high-level product features related to the kinds of tasks in which they have expressed an interest. As users explore the interface, they can reveal how those high-level features are linked to actual product data, including customer reviews and product specifications. We developed semi-automatic methods to extract the high-level features used by the system from online product data. These methods identify and group product features, mine and summarize opinions about those features, and identify product uses. User studies verified our focus on high-level features for browsing and low-level features and specifications for comparison.  

Privacy-Preserving Aggregation of Time-Series Data

Publication Details
  • NDSS 2011
  • Feb 6, 2011

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We consider how an untrusted data aggregator can learn desired statistics over multiple participants' data, without compromising each individual's privacy. We propose a construction that allows a group of participants to periodically upload encrypted values to a data aggregator, such that the aggregator is able to compute the sum of all participants' values in every time period, but is unable to learn anything else. We achieve strong privacy guarantees using two main techniques. First, we show how to utilize applied cryptographic techniques to allow the aggregator to decrypt the sum from multiple ciphertexts encrypted under different user keys. Second, we describe a distributed data randomization procedure that guarantees the differential privacy of the outcome statistic, even when a subset of participants might be compromised.
Publication Details
  • IS&T and SPIE International Conference on Multimedia Content Access: Algorithms and Systems
  • Jan 23, 2011

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This paper describes research activities at FX Palo Alto Laboratory (FXPAL) in the area of multimedia browsing, search, and retrieval. We first consider interfaces for organization and management of personal photo collections. We then survey our work on interactive video search and retrieval. Throughout we discuss the evolution of both the research challenges in these areas and our proposed solutions.
Publication Details
  • Fuji Xerox Technical Report
  • Jan 1, 2011

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Embedded Media Markers, or simply EMMs, are nearly transparent iconic marks printed on paper documents that signify the existence of media associated with that part of the document. EMMs also guide users' camera operations for media retrieval. Users take a picture of an EMM-signified document patch using a cell phone, and the media associated with the EMM-signified document location is displayed on the phone. Unlike bar codes, EMMs are nearly transparent and thus do not interfere with the document appearance. Retrieval of media associated with an EMM is based on image local features of the captured EMM-signified document patch. This paper describes a technique for semi-automatically placing an EMM at a location in a document, in such a way that it encompasses sufficient identification features with minimal disturbance to the original document.
Publication Details
  • Encyclopledia of the Sciences of Learning
  • Jan 1, 2011

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Supervised Learning is a machine learning paradigm for acquiring the input-output relationship information of a system based on a given set of paired input-output training samples. As the output is regarded as the label of the input data or the supervision, an input-output training sample is also called labelled training data, or supervised data. Occasionally, it is also referred to as Learning with a Teacher (Haykin 1998), Learning from Labelled Data, or Inductive Machine Learning (Kotsiantis, 2007). The goal of supervised learning is to build an artificial system that can learn the mapping between the input and the output, and can predict the output of the system given new inputs. If the output takes a finite set of discrete values that indicate the class labels of the input, the learned mapping leads to the classification of the input data. If the output takes continuous values, it leads to a regression of the input. The input-output relationship information is frequently represented with learning-model parameters. When these parameters are not directly available from training samples, a learning system needs to go through an estimation process to obtain these parameters. Different form Unsupervised Learning, the training data for Supervised Learning need supervised or labelled information, while the training data for unsupervised learning are unsupervised as they are not labelled (i.e., merely the inputs). If an algorithm uses both supervised and unsupervised training data, it is called a Semi-supervised Learning algorithm. If an algorithm actively queries a user/teacher for labels in the training process, the iterative supervised learning is called Active Learning.
2010
Publication Details
  • ACM International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces
  • Nov 8, 2010

Abstract

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Embedded Media Barcode Links, or simply EMBLs, are optimally blended iconic barcode marks, printed on paper documents, that signify the existence of multimedia associated with that part of the document content (Figure 1). EMBLs are used for multimedia retrieval with a camera phone. Users take a picture of an EMBL-signified document patch using a cell phone, and the multimedia associated with the EMBL-signified document location is displayed on the phone. Unlike a traditional barcode which requires an exclusive space, the EMBL construction algorithm acts as an agent to negotiate with a barcode reader for maximum user and document benefits. Because of this negotiation, EMBLs are optimally blended with content and thus have less interference with the original document layout and can be moved closer to a media associated location. Retrieval of media associated with an EMBL is based on the barcode identification of a captured EMBL. Therefore, EMBL retains nearly all barcode identification advantages, such as accuracy, speed, and scalability. Moreover, EMBL takes advantage of users' knowledge of a traditional barcode. Unlike Embedded Media Maker (EMM) which requires underlying document features for marker identification, EMBL has no requirement for the underlying features. This paper will discuss the procedures for EMBL construction and optimization. It will also give experimental results that strongly support the EMBL construction and optimization ideas.
Publication Details
  • Information Processing & Management, 46 (6), pp. 629-631
  • Nov 1, 2010

Abstract

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This special issue brings together papers that describe some of the many ways that collaborative information seeking manifests itself. Some papers report on collaborative practices in a range of domains, including medical (Hertzum), legal (Attfield et al.), and online Q&A (Gazan). Others propose and evaluate models of collaborative activity (Evans and Chi; Evans et al.; Wilson and schraefel; Foley and Smeaton), and others describe systems and algorithms that support collaboration in various ways (Boydell and Smyth; Fernandez-Luna et al., Halvey et al., Morris et al.; Shah et al.).

Role-based results redistribution for collaborative information retrieval

Publication Details
  • Information Processing & Management, 46 (6), pp. 773-781
  • Nov 1, 2010

Abstract

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We describe a new approach for algorithmic mediation of a collaborative search process. Unlike most approaches to collaborative IR, we are designing systems that mediate explicitly-defined synchronous collaboration among small groups of searchers with a shared information need. Such functionality is provided by first obtaining different rank-lists based on searchers' queries, fusing these rank-lists, and then splitting the combined list to distribute documents among collaborators according to their roles. For the work reported here, we consider the case of two people collaborating on a search. We assign them roles of Gatherer and Surveyor: the Gatherer is tasked with exploring highly promising information on a given topic, and the Surveyor is tasked with digging further to explore more diverse information. We demonstrate how our technique provides the Gatherer with high-precision results, and the Surveyor with information that is high in entropy.

Reverted Indexing for Feedback and Expansion

Publication Details
  • ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM 2010)
  • Oct 26, 2010

Abstract

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Traditional interactive information retrieval systems function by creating inverted lists, or term indexes. For every term in the vocabulary, a list is created that contains the documents in which that term occurs and its relative frequency within each document. Retrieval algorithms then use these term frequencies alongside other collection statistics to identify the matching documents for a query. In this paper, we turn the process around: instead of indexing documents, we index query result sets. First, queries are run through a chosen retrieval system. For each query, the resulting document IDs are treated as terms and the score or rank of the document is used as the frequency statistic. An index of documents retrieved by basis queries is created. We call this index a reverted index. Finally, with reverted indexes, standard retrieval algorithms can retrieve the matching queries (as results) for a set of documents (used as queries). These recovered queries can then be used to identify additional documents, or to aid the user in query formulation, selection, and feedback.

TalkMiner: A Search Engine for Online Lecture Video

Publication Details
  • ACM Multimedia 2010 - Industrial Exhibits
  • Oct 25, 2010

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TalkMiner is a search engine for lecture webcasts. Lecture videos are processed to recover a set of distinct slide images and OCR is used to generate a list of indexable terms from the slides. On our prototype system, users can search and browse lists of lectures, slides in a specific lecture, and play the lecture video. Over 10,000 lecture videos have been indexed from a variety of sources. A public website now allows users to experiment with the search engine.

NudgeCam: Toward targeted, higher quality media capture

Publication Details
  • ACM Multimedia 2010
  • Oct 25, 2010

Abstract

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NudgeCam is a mobile application that can help users capture more relevant, higher quality media. To guide users to capture media more relevant to a particular project, third-party template creators can show users media that demonstrates relevant content and can tell users what content should be present in each captured media using tags and other meta-data such as location and camera orientation. To encourage higher quality media capture, NudgeCam provides real time feedback based on standard media capture heuristics, including face positioning, pan speed, audio quality, and many others. We describe an implementation of NudgeCam on the Android platform as well as fi eld deployments of the application.

The Virtual Chocolate Factory:Mixed Reality Industrial Collaboration and Control

Publication Details
  • ACM Multimedia 2010 - Industrial Exhibits
  • Oct 25, 2010

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We will exhibit several aspects of a complex mixed reality system that we have built and deployed in a real-world factory setting. In our system, virtual worlds, augmented realities, and mobile applications are all fed from the same infrastructure. In collaboration with TCHO, a chocolate maker in San Francisco, we built a virtual “mirror” world of a real-world chocolate factory and its processes. Sensor data is imported into the multi-user 3D environment from hundreds of sensors on the factory floor. The resulting virtual factory is used for simulation, visualization, and collaboration, using a set of interlinked, real-time layers of information. Another part of our infrastructure is designed to support appropriate industrial uses for mobile devices such as cell phones and tablet computers. We deployed this system at the real-world factory in 2009, and it is now is daily use there. By simultaneously developing mobile, virtual, and web-based display and collaboration environments, we aimed to create an infrastructure that did not skew toward one type of application but that could serve many at once, interchangeably. Through this mixture of mobile, social, mixed and virtual technologies, we hope to create systems for enhanced collaboration in industrial settings between physically remote people and places, such as factories in China with managers in the US.

TalkMiner: A Lecture Webcast Search Engine

Publication Details
  • ACM Multimedia 2010
  • Oct 25, 2010

Abstract

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The design and implementation of a search engine for lecture webcasts is described. A searchable text index is created allowing users to locate material within lecture videos found on a variety of websites such as YouTube and Berkeley webcasts. The index is created from words on the presentation slides appearing in the video along with any associated metadata such as the title and abstract when available. The video is analyzed to identify a set of distinct slide images, to which OCR and lexical processes are applied which in turn generate a list of indexable terms. Several problems were discovered when trying to identify distinct slides in the video stream. For example, picture-in-picture compositing of a speaker and a presentation slide, switching cameras, and slide builds confuse basic frame-differencing algorithms for extracting keyframe slide images. Algorithms are described that improve slide identification. A prototype system was built to test the algorithms and the utility of the search engine. Users can browse lists of lectures, slides in a specific lecture, or play the lecture video. Over 10,000 lecture videos have been indexed from a variety of sources. A public website will be published in mid 2010 that allows users to experiment with the search engine.
Publication Details
  • ACM Multimedia 2010
  • Oct 25, 2010

Abstract

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An Embedded Media Marker (EMM) is a transparent mark printed on a paper document that signifies the availability of additional media associated with that part of the document. Users take a picture of the EMM using a camera phone, and the media associated with that part of the document is displayed on the phone. Unlike bar codes, EMMs are nearly transparent and thus do not interfere with the document appearance. Retrieval of media associated with an EMM is based on image features of the document within the EMM boundary. Unlike other feature-based retrieval methods, the EMM clearly indicates to the user the existence and type of media associated with the document location. A semi-automatic authoring tool is used to place an EMM at a location in a document, in such a way that it encompasses sufficient identification features with minimal disturbance to the original document. We will demonstrate how to create an EMM-enhanced document, and how the EMM enables access to the associated media on a cell phone.
Publication Details
  • ACM Multimedia
  • Oct 25, 2010

Abstract

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FACT is an interactive paper system for fine-grained interaction with documents across the boundary between paper and computers. It consists of a small camera-projector unit, a laptop, and ordinary paper documents. With the camera-projector unit pointing to a paper document, the system allows a user to issue pen gestures on the paper document for selecting fine-grained content and applying various digital functions. For example, the user can choose individual words, symbols, figures, and arbitrary regions for keyword search, copy and paste, web search, and remote sharing. FACT thus enables a computer-like user experience on paper. This paper interaction can be integrated with laptop interaction for cross-media manipulations on multiple documents and views. We present the infrastructure, supporting techniques and interaction design, and demonstrate the feasibility via a quantitative experiment. We also propose applications such as document manipulation, map navigation and remote collaboration.

"Need to know" security for data analysis (poster - the abstract will appear in the program)

Publication Details
  • NPUC2010
  • Oct 22, 2010

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The massive amounts of information that are being collected about each of us will only increase as sensors become ever cheaper and more powerful. Analysis of this wealth of data supports advances in medicine and public health, improved software and services through user pattern analysis, and more efficient economic mechanisms. At the same time, the potential for misuse of such data is significant. A long-term research question is how best to support beneficial uses while inhibiting misuse. One approach is to enable individuals to maintain tighter control of their own data while still supporting the computation of group statistics. Currently, analysts are usually given access to all data in order to compute statistics, and often use a third party service provider to store, or even process, such data. Either the third party has access to all data or the data are encrypted, in which case the third party does no processing. An interesting research question is how to provide mechanisms to support "need to know" security in which an individual has full access to her own data, the third party learns nothing about the data but can nevertheless contribute to the processing, and the analyst learns only the desired statistics. We have explored "need to know" security in connection with MyUnity, a prototype awareness system. MyUnity collects data from a variety of sources and displays summary presence states, such as ``in office'' or ``with visitor,'' computed from the received data. MyUnity was deployed in a small research lab and has been in use by over 30 people for more than a year. To avoid concerns about misuse, the system did not store any data initially. The researchers developing the system were interested, however, in analyzing usage patterns, and users expressed interest in seeing personal trends, activity patterns of coworkers, and long-term data pooled across groups of users, all requiring data to be stored. At the same time, users continued to be concerned about misuse of stored data. We looked at ``need to know'' security for cases in which, at each time step, each member of a group of users has a value (i.e., a presence state) to contribute, and the group would like to provide only an aggregate view of those values to people outside their group. We designed and implemented an efficient protocol that enables each user to encrypt under her own key in such a way that a third party can compute an encryption of a sum across values encrypted under different keys without the need for further interactions with the individuals. The protocol provides means for an analyst to decrypt the encrypted sum. We designed key structures and extensions to provide a family of efficient non-interactive ``need to know'' protocols for time series data in which the analyst learns only the statistics, not the individual data values, and the third party learns nothing about the values.

Camera Pose Navigation using Augmented Reality

Publication Details
  • ISMAR 2010
  • Oct 13, 2010

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We propose an Augmented Reality (AR) system that helps users take a picture from a designated pose, such as the position and camera angle of an earlier photo. Repeat photography is frequently used to observe and document changes in an object. Our system uses AR technology to estimate camera poses in real time. When a user takes a photo, the camera pose is saved as a 'view bookmark.' To support a user in taking a repeat photo, two simple graphics are rendered in an AR viewer on the camera's screen to guide the user to this bookmarked view. The system then uses image adjustment techniques to create an image based on the user's repeat photo that is even closer to the original.
Publication Details
  • ACM DocEng 2010
  • Sep 21, 2010

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We present a method for picture detection in document page images, which can come from scanned or camera images, or rendered from electronic file formats. Our method uses OCR to separate out the text and applies the Normalized Cuts algorithm to cluster the non-text pixels into picture regions. A refinement step uses the captions found in the OCR text to deduce how many pictures are in a picture region, thereby correcting for under- and over-segmentation. A performance evaluation scheme is applied which takes into account the detection quality and fragmentation quality. We benchmark our method against the ABBYY application on page images from conference papers.
Publication Details
  • IIiX 2010
  • Aug 18, 2010

Abstract

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Exploratory search is a difficult activity that requires iterative interaction. This iterative process helps the searcher to understand and to refine the information need. It also generates a rich set of data that can be used effectively to reflect on what has been found (and found useful). In this paper, we describe a framework for unifying transitions among various stages of exploratory search, and show how context from one stage can be applied to the next. The framework can be used both to describe existing information-seeking interactions, and as a means of generating novel ones. We illustrate the framework with examples from a session-based exploratory search system prototype that we have built.
Publication Details
  • ICME 2010, Singapore, July 19-23 2010
  • Jul 19, 2010

Abstract

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Virtual, mobile, and mixed reality systems have diverse uses for data visualization and remote collaboration in industrial settings, especially factories. We report our experiences in designing complex mixed-reality collaboration, control, and display systems for a real-world factory, for delivering real-time factory information to multiple users. In collaboration with (blank for review), a chocolate maker in San Francisco, our research group is building a virtual “mirror” world of a real-world chocolate factory and its processes. Real-world sensor data (such as temperature and machine state) is imported into the 3D environment from hundreds of sensors on the factory floor. Multi-camera imagery from the factory is also available in the multi-user 3D factory environment. The resulting "virtual factory" is designed for simulation, visualization, and collaboration, using a set of interlinked, real-time 3D and 2D layers of information about the factory and its processes. We are also looking at appropriate industrial uses for mobile devices such as cell phones and tablet computers, and how they intersect with virtual worlds and mixed realities. For example, an experimental iPhone web app provides mobile laboratory monitoring and control. The app allows a real-time view into the lab via steerable camera and remote control of lab machines. The mobile system is integrated with the database underlying the virtual factory world. These systems were deployed at the real-world factory and lab in 2009, and are now in beta development. Through this mashup of mobile, social, mixed and virtual technologies, we hope to create industrial systems for enhanced collaboration between physically remote people and places – for example, factories in China with managers in Japan or the US.
Publication Details
  • ACM SIGACT News, Vol 41, No. 3, 2010
  • Jul 12, 2010

Abstract

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Over the years I have enjoyed Mermin's colorful, idiosyncratic, and insightful papers. His interest in the foundations of quantum mechanics has led him to discover alternative explanations for various quantum mechanical puzzles and protocols. These explanations are often superior to previous explanations in both simplicity and insight, and even when they are not outright better, they provide a valuable alternative point of view. His book is filled with such explanations, and with strong, sometimes controversial, opinions on the right way of seeing something, which make his book both valuable and entertaining.
Publication Details
  • JCDL 2010
  • Jun 21, 2010

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Photo libraries are growing in quantity and size, requiring better support for locating desired photographs. MediaGLOW is an interactive visual workspace designed to address this concern. It uses attributes such as visual appearance, GPS locations, user-assigned tags, and dates to filter and group photos. An automatic layout algorithm positions photos with similar attributes near each other to support users in serendipitously finding multiple relevant photos. In addition, the system can explicitly select photos similar to specified photos. We conducted a user evaluation to determine the benefit provided by similarity layout and the relative advantages offered by the different layout similarity criteria and attribute filters. Study participants had to locate photos matching probe statements. In some tasks, participants were restricted to a single layout similarity criterion and filter option. Participants used multiple attributes to filter photos. Layout by similarity without additional filters turned out to be one of the most used strategies and was especially beneficial for geographical similarity. Lastly, the relative appropriateness of the single similarity criterion to the probe significantly affected retrieval performance.

Geometric reconstruction from point-normal data

Publication Details
  • SIAM MI'09 monograph. Related talks: SIAM GPM'09, SIAM MI'09, and BAMA (Bay Area Mathematical Adventures)
  • May 1, 2010

Abstract

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Creating virtual models of real spaces and objects is cumber- some and time consuming. This paper focuses on the prob- lem of geometric reconstruction from sparse data obtained from certain image-based modeling approaches. A number of elegant and simple-to-state problems arise concerning when the geometry can be reconstructed. We describe results and counterexamples, and list open problems.

Making sense of Twitter Search

Publication Details
  • In Proc. CHI2010 Workshop on Microblogging: What and How Can We Learn From It? April 11, 2010
  • Apr 11, 2010

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Twitter provides a search interface to its data, along the lines of traditional search engines. But the single ranked list is a poor way to represent the richly-structured Twitter data. A more structured approach that recognizes original messages, re-tweets, people, and documents as interesting constructs is more appropriate for this kind of data. In this paper, we describe a prototype for exploring search results delivered by Twitter. The design is based on our own experience with using Twitter search, and as well as on the results of an small online questionnaire.
Publication Details
  • In Proc. CHI 2010
  • Apr 10, 2010

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The use of whiteboards is pervasive across a wide range of work domains. But some of the qualities that make them successful—an intuitive interface, physical working space, and easy erasure—inherently make them poor tools for archival and reuse. If whiteboard content could be made available in times and spaces beyond those supported by the whiteboard alone, how might it be appropriated? We explore this question via ReBoard, a system that automatically captures whiteboard images and makes them accessible through a novel set of user-centered access tools. Through the lens of a seven week workplace field study, we found that by enabling new workflows, ReBoard increased the value of whiteboard content for collaboration.

Exploring the Workplace Communication Ecology

Publication Details
  • In Proc. CHI 2010
  • Apr 10, 2010

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The modern workplace is inherently collaborative, and this collaboration relies on effective communication among coworkers. Many communication tools – email, blogs, wikis, Twitter, etc. – have become increasingly available and accepted in workplace communications. In this paper, we report on a study of communications technologies used over a one year period in a small US corporation. We found that participants used a large number of communication tools for different purposes, and that the introduction of new tools did not impact significantly the use of previously-adopted technologies. Further, we identified distinct classes of users based on patterns of tool use. This work has implications for the design of technology in the evolving ecology of communication tools.
Publication Details
  • In Proc. of CHI 2010
  • Apr 10, 2010

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PACER is a gesture-based interactive paper system that supports fine-grained paper document content manipulation through the touch screen of a cameraphone. Using the phone's camera, PACER links a paper document to its digital version based on visual features. It adopts camera-based phone motion detection for embodied gestures (e.g. marquees, underlines and lassos), with which users can flexibly select and interact with document details (e.g. individual words, symbols and pixels). The touch input is incorporated to facilitate target selection at fine granularity,and to address some limitations of the embodied interaction, such as hand jitter and low input sampling rate. This hybrid interaction is coupled with other techniques such as semi-real time document tracking and loose physical-digital document registration, offering a gesture-based command system. We demonstrate the use of PACER in various scenarios including work-related reading, maps and music score playing. A preliminary user study on the design has produced encouraging user feedback, and suggested future research for better understanding of embodied vs. touch interaction and one vs. two handed interaction.

Understanding the Benefits of Gaze Enhanced Visual Search

Publication Details
  • Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications 2010
  • Mar 22, 2010

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In certain applications such as radiology and imagery analysis, it is important to minimize errors. In this paper we evaluate a structured inspection method that uses eye tracking information as a feedback mechanism to the image inspector. Our two-phase method starts with a free viewing phase during which gaze data is collected. During the next phase, we either segment the image, mask previously seen areas of the image, or combine the two techniques, and repeat the search. We compare the different methods proposed for the second search phase by evaluating the inspection method using true positive and false negative rates, and subjective workload. Results show that gaze-blocked configurations reduced the subjective workload, and that gaze-blocking without segmentation showed the largest increase in true positive identifications and the largest decrease in false negative identifications of previously unseen objects.

The Virtual Factory: Exploring 3D worlds as industrial collaboration and control environments

Publication Details
  • IEEE Virtual Reality 2010 conference
  • Mar 19, 2010

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This project investigates practical uses of virtual, mobile, and mixed reality systems in industrial settings, in particular control and collaboration applications for factories. In collaboration with TCHO, a chocolate maker start-up in San Francisco, we have built virtual mirror-world representations of a real-world chocolate factory and are importing its data and modeling its processes. The system integrates mobile devices such as cell phones and tablet computers. The resulting "virtual factory" is a cross-reality environment designed for simulation, visualization, and collaboration, using a set of interlinked, real-time 3D and 2D layers of information about the factory and its processes.
Publication Details
  • IEEE Pervasive Computing. 9(2). 46-55.
  • Mar 15, 2010

Abstract

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Paper is static but it is also light, flexible, robust, and has high resolution for reading documents in various scenarios. Digital devices will likely never match the flexibility of paper, but come with all of the benefits of computation and networking. Tags provide a simple means of bridging the gap between the two media to get the most out of both. In this paper, we explore the tradeoffs between two different types of tagging technologies – marker-based and content-based – through the lens of four systems we have developed and evaluated at our lab. From our experiences, we extrapolate issues for designers to consider when developing systems that transition between paper and digital content in a variety of different scenarios.

Abstract

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Browsing and searching for documents in large, online enterprise document repositories are common activities. While internet search produces satisfying results for most user queries, enterprise search has not been as successful because of differences in document types and user requirements. To support users in finding the information they need in their online enterprise repository, we created DocuBrowse, a faceted document browsing and search system. Search results are presented within the user-created document hierarchy, showing only directories and documents matching selected facets and containing text query terms. In addition to file properties such as date and file size, automatically detected document types, or genres, serve as one of the search facets. Highlighting draws the user’s attention to the most promising directories and documents while thumbnail images and automatically identified keyphrases help select appropriate documents. DocuBrowse utilizes document similarities, browsing histories, and recommender system techniques to suggest additional promising documents for the current facet and content filters.
Publication Details
  • IUI 2010 Best Paper Award
  • Feb 7, 2010

Abstract

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Embedded Media Markers, or simply EMMs, are nearly transparent iconic marks printed on paper documents that signify the existence of media associated with that part of the document. EMMs also guide users' camera operations for media retrieval. Users take a picture of an EMMsignified document patch using a cell phone, and the media associated with the EMM-signified document location is displayed on the phone. Unlike bar codes, EMMs are nearly transparent and thus do not interfere with the document contents. Retrieval of media associated with an EMM is based on image local features of the captured EMMsignified document patch. This paper describes a technique for semi-automatically placing an EMM at a location in a document, in such a way that it encompasses sufficient identification features with minimal disturbance to the original document.

Seamless Document Handling

Publication Details
  • Fuji Xerox Technical Report, No.19, 2010, pp. 57-65.
  • Jan 12, 2010

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The current trend toward high-performance mobile networks and increasingly sophisticated mobile devices has fostered the growth of mobile workers. In mobile environments, an urgent need exists for handling documents using a mobile phone, especially for browsing documents and viewing Rich Contents created on computers. This paper describes Seamless Document Handling, which is a technology for viewing electronic documents and Rich Contents on the small screen of a mobile phone. To enhance operability and readability, we devised a method of scrolling documents efficiently by applying document image processing technology, and designed a novel user interface with a pan-and-zoom technique. We conducted on-site observations to test usability of the prototype, and gained insights difficult to acquire in a lab that led to improved functions in the prototype.
Publication Details
  • Fuji Xerox Technical Report No. 19, pp. 88-100
  • Jan 1, 2010

Abstract

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Browsing and searching for documents in large, online enterprise document repositories is an increasingly common problem. While users are familiar and usually satisfied with Internet search results for information, enterprise search has not been as successful because of differences in data types and user requirements. To support users in finding the information they need from electronic and scanned documents in their online enterprise repository, we created an automatic detector for genres such as papers, slides, tables, and photos. Several of those genres correspond roughly to file name extensions but are identified automatically using features of the document. This genre identifier plays an important role in our faceted document browsing and search system. The system presents documents in a hierarchy as typically found in enterprise document collections. Documents and directories are filtered to show only documents matching selected facets and containing optional query terms and to highlight promising directories. Thumbnail images and automatically identified keyphrases help select desired documents.
2009

Quantum Computing

Publication Details
  • Entry in Wiley's The Handbook of Technology Management
  • Dec 31, 2009

Abstract

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Changing the model underlying information and computation from a classical mechanical to a quantum mechanical one yields faster algorithms, novel cryptographic mechanisms, and alternative methods of communication. Quantum algorithms can perform a select set of tasks vastly more efficiently than any classical algorithm, but for many tasks it has been proven that quantum algorithms provide no advantage. The breadth of quantum computing applications is still being explored. Major application areas include security and the many fields that would benefit from efficient quantum simulation. The quantum information processing viewpoint provides insight into classical algorithmic issues as well as a deeper understanding of entanglement and other non-classical aspects of quantum physics.
Publication Details
  • ACM Multimedia 2009 Workshop on Large-Scale Multimedia Retrieval and Mining
  • Oct 23, 2009

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We describe an efficient and scalable system for automatic image categorization. Our approach seeks to marry scalable “model-free” neighborhood-based annotation with accurate boosting-based per-tag modeling. For accelerated neighborhood-based classification, we use a set of spatial data structures as weak classifiers for an arbitrary number of categories. We employ standard edge and color features and an approximation scheme that scales to large training sets. The weak classifier outputs are combined in a tag-dependent fashion via boosting to improve accuracy. The method performs competitively with standard SVM-based per-tag classification with substantially reduced computational requirements. We present multi-label image annotation experiments using data sets of more than two million photos.

Marking up a World: Physical Markup for Virtual Content Creation (Video)

Publication Details
  • ACM Multimedia
  • Oct 21, 2009

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The Pantheia system enables users to create virtual models by `marking up' the real world with pre-printed markers. The markers have prede fined meanings that guide the system as it creates models. Pantheia takes as input user captured images or video of the marked up space. This video illustrates the workings of the system and shows it being used to create three models, one of a cabinet, one of a lab, and one of a conference room. As part of the Pantheia system, we also developed a 3D viewer that spatially integrates a model with images of the model.
Publication Details
  • ACM Multimedia 2009
  • Oct 19, 2009

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Existing cameraphone-based interactive paper systems fall short of the flexibility of GUIs, partly due to their deficient fine-grained interactions, limited interaction styles and inadequate targeted document types. We present PACER, a platform for applications to interact with document details (e.g. individual words, East Asian characters, math symbols, music notes, and user-specified arbitrary image regions) of generic paper documents through a camera phone. With a see-through phone interface, a user can discover symbol recurrences in a document by pointing the phone's crosshair to a symbol within a printout. The user can also continuously move the phone over a printout for gestures to copy and email an arbitrary region, or play music notes on the printout.
Publication Details
  • IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues. Vol. 1.
  • Oct 15, 2009

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Reading documents on mobile devices is challenging. Not only are screens small and difficult to read, but also navigating an environment using limited visual attention can be difficult and potentially dangerous. Reading content aloud using text-to-speech (TTS) processing can mitigate these problems, but only for content that does not include rich visual information. In this paper, we introduce a new technique, SeeReader, that combines TTS with automatic content recognition and document presentation control that allows users to listen to documents while also being notified of important visual content. Together, these services allow users to read rich documents on mobile devices while maintaining awareness of their visual environment.

Designing an easy-to-use executive conference room system

Publication Details
  • Book chapter in "Designing User Friendly Augmented Work Environments" Series: Computer Supported Cooperative Work Lahlou, Saadi (Ed.) 2009, Approx. 340 p. 117 illus., Hardcove
  • Sep 30, 2009

Abstract

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The Usable Smart Environment project (USE) aims at designing easy-to-use, highly functional next-generation conference rooms. Our first design prototype focuses on creating a "no wizards" room for an American executive; that is, a room the executive could walk into and use by himself, without help from a technologist. A key idea in the USE framework is that customization is one of the best ways to create a smooth user experience. Since the system needs to fit both with the personal leadership style of the executive and the corporation's meeting culture, we began the design process by exploring the work flow in and around meetings attended by the executive. Based on our work flow analysis and the scenarios we developed from it, USE developed a flexible, extensible architecture specifically designed to enhance ease of use in smart environment technologies. The architecture allows customization and personalization of smart environments for particular people and groups, types of work, and specific physical spaces. The first USE room was designed for FXPAL's executive "Ian" and installed in Niji, a small executive conference room at FXPAL. The room Niji currently contains two large interactive whiteboards for projection of presentation material, for annotations using a digital whiteboard, or for teleconferencing; a Tandberg teleconferencing system; an RFID authentication plus biometric identification system; printing via network; a PDA-based simple controller, and a tabletop touch-screen console. The console is used for the USE room control interface, which controls and switches between all of the equipment mentioned above.
Publication Details
  • ACM Mindtrek 2009
  • Sep 30, 2009

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Most mobile navigation systems focus on answering the question,“I know where I want to go, now can you show me exactly how to get there?” While this approach works well for many tasks, it is not as useful for unconstrained situations in which user goals and spatial landscapes are more fluid, such as festivals or conferences. In this paper we describe the design and iteration of the Kartta system, which we developed to answer a slightly different question: “What are the most interesting areas here and how do I find them?”

Publication Details
  • Mobile HCI 2009 (poster)
  • Sep 15, 2009

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Most mobile navigation systems focus on answering the question, "I know where I want to go, now can you show me exactly how to get there?" While this approach works well for many tasks, it is not as useful for unconstrained situations in which user goals and spatial landscapes are more fluid, such as festivals or conferences. In this paper we describe the design and iteration of the Kartta system, which we developed to answer a slightly different question: "What are the most interesting areas here and how do I find them?"
Publication Details
  • Book chapter in "Understanding the New Generation Office: Collective Intelligence of 100 Specialists" (book project in Japan, by New Era Office Research Center, Tokyo)
  • Aug 18, 2009

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A personal interface for information mash-up: exploring worlds both physical and virtual

Book chapter in "Understanding the New Generation Office: Collective Intelligence of 100 Specialists" (book project in Japan, by New Era Office Research Center, Tokyo) , August 18, 2009

This is a Big Idea piece for a collective intelligence book project by the New Era Office Research Center, Tokyo. It is written at the invitation of FX colleague Koushi Kawamoto. The project asks the same questions of 100 specialists: Answer these four questions about an idea for a next-generation workplace: 1. Want: what do I want to be able to do? 2. Should: what should a system to support this "want" be able to do? 3. Create: imagine what an instance of this idea might be. 4. Can: how could this instance be realized in reality?

WANT: In my ideal work environment, the data I need on everything and everyone should be available at my fingertips, all the time, in many configurations that I can mix-and-match to suit the needs of any task. This includes things like: • documents of all types • people's status, tasks, and availability • audio, video, mobile, and virtual world communication channels • links to the physical world as appropriate, for example sensors delivering factory data, or the state of the machines I use daily in the workplace (printers, my PC, conference room systems), or awareness data about my colleagues. CAN: How can we approach this problem? Let's consider the creation of a personal interface or instrument for information mashup, capable of interacting with complex data structures, for tuning smart environments, and for exploring worlds both physical and virtual, in business, social and personal realms. Like any interactive system this idea has two parts: human-facing and system-facing. These can be called Interstitia I (extending human interactivity) and Interstitia II (enabling smart environments).

High-tech Chocolate: exploring mobile and 3D applications for factories

Publication Details
  • Presentation at SIGGRAPH 2009, New Orleans, LA. ACM.
  • Aug 3, 2009

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FXPAL, a research lab in Silicon Valley, and TCHO, a chocolate manufacturer in San Francisco, have been collaborating on exploring emerging technologies for industry. The two companies seek ways to bring people closer to the products they consume, clarifying end-to-end production processes with technologies like sensor networks for fine-grained monitoring and control, mobile process control, and real/virtual mashups using virtual and augmented realities. This work lies within and extends the area of research called mixed- or cross-reality

Mirror World Chocolate Factory

Publication Details
  • IEEE Pervasive Computing July-August 2009 (Journal, Works in Progress section)
  • Jul 18, 2009

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FXPAL, a research lab in Silicon Valley, and TCHO, a chocolate manufacturer in San Francisco, have been collaborating on exploring emerging technologies for industry. The two companies seek ways to bring people closer to the products they consume, clarifying end-to-end production processes with technologies like sensor networks for fine-grained monitoring and control, mobile process control, and real/virtual mashups using virtual and augmented realities.

Interactive Models from Images of a Static Scene

Publication Details
  • Computer Graphics and Virtual Reality (CGVR '09)
  • Jul 13, 2009

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FXPAL's Pantheia system enables users to create virtual models by 'marking up' a physical space with pre-printed visual markers. The meanings associated with the markers come from a markup language that enables the system to create models from a relatively sparse set of markers. This paper describes extensions to our markup language and system that support the creation of interactive virtual objects. Users place markers to define components such as doors and drawers with which an end user of the model can interact. Other interactive elements, such as controls for color changes or lighting choices, are also supported. Pantheia produced a model of a room with hinged doors, a cabinet with drawers, doors, and color options, and a railroad track.
Publication Details
  • 2009 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME)
  • Jun 30, 2009

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This paper presents a tool and a novel Fast Invariant Transform (FIT) algorithm for language independent e-documents access. The tool enables a person to access an e-document through an informal camera capture of a document hardcopy. It can save people from remembering/exploring numerous directories and file names, or even going through many pages/paragraphs in one document. It can also facilitate people’s manipulation of a document or people’s interactions through documents. Additionally, the algorithm is useful for binding multimedia data to language independent paper documents. Our document recognition algorithm is inspired by the widely known SIFT descriptor [4] but can be computed much more efficiently for both descriptor construction and search. It also uses much less storage space than the SIFT approach. By testing our algorithm with randomly scaled and rotated document pages, we can achieve a 99.73% page recognition rate on the 2188-page ICME06 proceedings and 99.9% page recognition rate on a 504-page Japanese math book.

Image-based Lighting Adjustment Method for Browsing Object Images

Publication Details
  • 2009 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME)
  • Jun 30, 2009

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In this paper, we describe an automatic lighting adjustment method for browsing object images. From a set of images of an object, taken under different lighting conditions, we generate two types of illuminated images: a textural image which eliminates unwanted specular reflections of the object, and a highlight image in which specularities of the object are highly preserved. Our user interface allows viewers to digitally zoom into any region of the image, and the lighting adjusted images are automatically generated for the selected region and displayed. Switching between the textural and the highlight images helps viewers to understand characteristics of the object surface.

WebNC: efficient sharing of web applications

Publication Details
  • Hypertext 2009
  • Jun 29, 2009

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WebNC is a system for efficiently sharing, retrieving and viewing web applications. Unlike existing screencasting and screensharing tools, WebNC is optimized to work with web pages where a lot of scrolling happens. WebNC uses a tile-based encoding to capture, transmit and deliver web applications, and relies only on dynamic HTML and JavaScript. The resulting webcasts require very little bandwidth and are viewable on any modern web browser including Firefox and Internet Explorer as well as browsers on the iPhone and Android platforms.
Publication Details
  • Journal article in Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing (2009), 23, 263-274. Printed in the USA. 2009 Cambridge University Press.
  • Jun 17, 2009

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Modern design embraces digital augmentation, especially in the interplay of digital media content and the physical dispersion and handling of information. Based on the observation that small paper memos with sticky backs (such as Post-Its ™) are a powerful and frequently used design tool, we have created Post-Bits, a new interface device with a physical embodiment that can be handled as naturally as paper sticky notes by designers, yet add digital information affordances as well. A Post-Bit is a design prototype of a small electronic paper device for handling multimedia content, with interaction control and display in one thin flexible sheet. Tangible properties of paper such as flipping, flexing, scattering, and rubbing are mapped to controlling aspects of the multimedia content such as scrubbing, sorting, or up- or downloading dynamic media (images, video, text). In this paper we discuss both the design process involved in building a prototype of a tangible interface using new technologies, and how the use of Post-Bits as a tangible design tool can impact two common design tasks: design ideation or brainstorming, and storyboarding for interactive systems or devices.
Publication Details
  • Immerscom 2009
  • May 27, 2009

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We describe Pantheia, a system that constructs virtual models of real spaces from collections of images, through the use of visual markers that guide and constrain model construction. To create a model users simply `mark up' the real world scene by placing pre-printed markers that describe scene elements or impose semantic constraints. Users then collect still images or video of the scene. From this input, Pantheia automatically and quickly produces a model. The Pantheia system was used to produce models of two rooms that demonstrate the e ectiveness of the approach.
Publication Details
  • Pervasive 2009
  • May 11, 2009

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Recorded presentations are difficult to watch on a mobile phone because of the small screen, and even more challenging when the user is traveling or commuting. This demo shows an application designed for viewing presentations in a mobile situation, and describes the design process that involved on-site observation and informal user testing at our lab. The system generates a user-controllable movie by capturing a slide presentation, extracting active regions of interest using cues from the presenter, and creating pan-and-zoom effects to direct the active regions within a small screen. During playback, the user can simply watch the movie in automatic mode using a minimal amount of effort to operate the application. When more flexible control is needed, the user can switch into manual mode to temporarily focus on specific regions of interest.
Publication Details
  • ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications and Applications, Vol. 5, Issue 2
  • May 1, 2009

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Hyper-Hitchcock consists of three components for creating and viewing a form of interactive video called detail-on-demand video: a hypervideo editor, a hypervideo player, and algorithms for automatically generating hypervideo summaries. Detail-on-demand video is a form of hypervideo that supports one hyperlink at a time for navigating between video sequences. The Hyper-Hitchcock editor enables authoring of detail-on-demand video without programming and uses video processing to aid in the authoring process. The Hyper-Hitchcock player uses labels and keyframes to support navigation through and back hyperlinks. Hyper-Hitchcock includes techniques for automatically generating hypervideo summaries of one or more videos that take the form of multiple linear summaries of different lengths with links from the shorter to the longer summaries. User studies on authoring and viewing provided insight into the various roles of links in hypervideo and found that player interface design greatly affects people's understanding of hypervideo structure and the video they access.

WebNC: efficient sharing of web applications

Publication Details
  • WWW 2009
  • Apr 22, 2009

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WebNC is a browser plugin that leverages the Document Object Model for efficiently sharing web browser windows or recording web browsing sessions to be replayed later. Unlike existing screen-sharing or screencasting tools, WebNC is optimized to work with web pages where a lot of scrolling happens. Rendered pages are captured as image tiles, and transmitted to a central server through http post. Viewers can watch the webcasts in realtime or asynchronously using a standard web browser: WebNC only relies on html and javascript to reproduce the captured web content. Along with the visual content of web pages, WebNC also captures their layout and textual content for later retrieval. The resulting webcasts require very little bandwidth, are viewable on any modern web browser including the iPhone and Android phones, and are searchable by keyword.
Publication Details
  • CHI2009
  • Apr 4, 2009

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Zooming user interfaces are increasingly popular on mobile devices with touch screens. Swiping and pinching finger gestures anywhere on the screen manipulate the displayed portion of a page, and taps open objects within the page. This makes navigation easy but limits other manipulations of objects that would be supported naturally by the same gestures, notably cut and paste, multiple selection, and drag and drop. A popular device that suffers from this limitation is Apple's iPhone. In this paper, we present Bezel Swipe, an interaction technique that supports multiple selection, cut, copy, paste and other operations without interfering with zooming, panning, tapping and other pre-defined gestures. Participants of our user study found Bezel Swipe to be a viable alternative to direct touch selection.

DICE: Designing Conference Rooms for Usability

Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of CHI 2009
  • Apr 4, 2009

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One of the core challenges now facing smart rooms is supporting realistic, everyday activities. While much research has been done to push forward the frontiers of novel interaction techniques, we argue that technology geared toward widespread adoption requires a design approach that emphasizes straightforward configuration and control, as well as flexibility. We examined the work practices of users of a large, multi-purpose conference room, and designed DICE, a system to help them use the room's capabilities. We describe the design process, and report findings about the system's usability and about people's use of a multi-purpose conference room.

Gaze-aided human-computer and human-human dialogue

Publication Details
  • Book chapter in Handbook of Research on Socio-Technical Design and Social Networking Systems, eds. Whitworth B., and de Moor, A. Information Science Reference, pp. 529-543.
  • Mar 2, 2009

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Eye-gaze plays an important role in face-to-face communication. This chapter presents research on exploiting the rich information contained in human eye-gaze for two types of applications. The first is to enhance computer mediated human-human communication by overlaying eye-gaze movement onto the shared visual spatial discussion material such as a map. The second is to manage multimodal human-computer dialogue by tracking the user's eye-gaze pattern as an indicator of user's interest. We briefly review related literature and summarize results from two research projects on human-human and human-computer communication.

FXPAL Interactive Search Experiments for TRECVID 2008

Publication Details
  • Proceedings of TRECVID 2008 Workshop
  • Mar 1, 2009

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In 2008 FXPAL submitted results for two tasks: rushes summarization and interactive search. The rushes summarization task has been described at the ACM Multimedia workshop [1]. Interested readers are referred to that publication for details. We describe our interactive search experiments in this notebook paper.
Publication Details
  • IUI '09
  • Feb 8, 2009

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We designed an interactive visual workspace, MediaGLOW, that supports users in organizing personal and shared photo collections. The system interactively places photos with a spring layout algorithm using similarity measures based on visual, temporal, and geographic features. These similarity measures are also used for the retrieval of additional photos. Unlike traditional spring-based algorithms, our approach provides users with several means to adapt the layout to their tasks. Users can group photos in stacks that in turn attract neighborhoods of similar photos. Neighborhoods partition the workspace by severing connections outside the neighborhood. By placing photos into the same stack, users can express a desired organization that the system can use to learn a neighborhood-specific combination of distances.
2008

Interactive Multimedia Search: Systems for Exploration and Collaboration

Publication Details
  • Fuji Xerox Technical Report
  • Dec 15, 2008

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We have developed an interactive video search system that allows the searcher to rapidly assess query results and easily pivot off those results to form new queries. The system is intended to maximize the use of the discriminative power of the human searcher. The typical video search scenario we consider has a single searcher with the ability to search with text and content-based queries. In this paper, we evaluate a new collaborative modification of our search system. Using our system, two or more users with a common information need search together, simultaneously. The collaborative system provides tools, user interfaces and, most importantly, algorithmically-mediated retrieval to focus, enhance and augment the team's search and communication activities. In our evaluations, algorithmic mediation improved the collaborative performance of both retrieval (allowing a team of searchers to find relevant information more efficiently and effectively), and exploration (allowing the searchers to find relevant information that cannot be found while working individually). We present analysis and conclusions from comparative evaluations of the search system.

Rethinking the Podium

Publication Details
  • Chapter in "Interactive Artifacts and Furniture Supporting Collaborative Work and Learning", ed. P. Dillenbourg, J. Huang, and M. Cherubini. Published Nov. 28, 2008, Springer. Computer Supported Collaborative learning Series Vol 10.
  • Nov 28, 2008

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As the use of rich media in mobile devices and smart environments becomes more sophisticated, so must the design of the everyday objects used as controllers and interfaces. Many new interfaces simply tack electronic systems onto existing forms. However, an original physical design for a smart artefact, that integrates new systems as part of the form of the device, can enhance the end-use experience. The Convertible Podium is an experiment in the design of a smart artefact with complex integrated systems for the use of rich media in meeting rooms. It combines the highly designed look and feel of a modern lectern with systems that allow it to serve as a central control station for rich media manipulation. The interface emphasizes tangibility and ease of use in controlling multiple screens, multiple media sources (including mobile devices) and multiple distribution channels, and managing both data and personal representation in remote telepresence.